Under the rose-apple tree

Under the rose-apple tree

Tuesday, 22 November 2016

What I have been reciting recently (3): English translation

[Fourteen verses on embracing the bodhi-mind]

3.1 The pain of hellish suffering is abated by an act of goodness, done by any being: in this truth, I quietly rejoice. May those who are suffering find lasting peace.

3.2 I rejoice that real, embodied beings have found freedom from the suffering of samsara. Again, I rejoice in the bodhisattva-hood and the buddha-hood of the protectors.

3.3. The vast teachings flooding forth from their minds bring happiness to all creatures, and give benefit to all creatures -- I rejoice in the oceans of the teachers.

3.4 With palms joined, I pray to the fully awakened buddhas in all directions: Act as lanterns of the dharma, for those who, through ignorance, have fallen into suffering.

3.5 Again, with palms joined I appeal to the victors whose desire is to be extinguished: Remain for endless aeons. Do not leave this world blind.

3.6 With any good I have gained like this, putting all this into practice, may I become for all living beings the allayer of every kind of suffering.

3.7 For the sick, I am medicine. May I become both a doctor and one who cares for them, until the illness is no more.

3.8 May I remove the hardship of hunger and thirst with showers of food and drink. In long periods of famine and drought, may I be food and drink.

3.9 Again, for beings living in poverty may I be an inexhaustible treasure. May I be there with them to provide many forms of assistance.

3.10 Incarnations of myself, enjoyments, and any good done in all three times -- these I give up without a second thought, if it will help all living beings to find meaning in their lives.

3.11 To let go of everything is nirvana, and it is nirvana that my mind seeks. If I am to let go of everything, it had best be given to living beings.

3.12 Again, I have put this self beyond pleasure into the hands of all embodied beings -- let them constantly beat it up, or let them put it down; let them cover it with shit.

3.13 Let them play with my body. Let them laugh at it and fool with it. I have already given it to them -- why should I worry about it?

3.27 Just as a blind man might find a jewel among heaps of rubbish so, somehow, has this bodhi-mind arisen in me.

[The first three pāramitās - 1. free giving, 2. ethical conduct, 3. tolerance]

5.10 From the mind to cede to all people all that one has, along with all reward, stems what is called the virtue of free giving. Therefore that virtue is the mind itself.

5.11 "Where should fish and the like be led so that I might not kill them?" Rather, when the mind of cessation is obtained, that is esteemed as the virtue of ethical conduct.

5.12 "How many shall I kill of those bad guys who are endless as the sky?" Rather, when the angry mind is killed, all enemies are killed.

5.13 Where will the leather be found to cover the whole earth? With only the leather of a pair of sandals, the earth is indeed being covered.

[tolerance continued]

6.1  All of this good conduct, free giving, honouring of the ones gone well, practised for thousands of aeons -- anger nullifies it all.

6.2 There is no evil like hatred, and no ascetic practice as tough as tolerance. Therefore one should make an effort to cultivate tolerance, by various methods.

[4. persevering effort]

7.1 The one who thus endures should practise persevering effort, in which direction enlightenment resides. For without persevering effort there is no merit, just as a there is no sailing without wind.

7.2 What is persevering effort? Persevering in the good. What is its opposite called? Laziness, attachment to base things, dejection, low self-esteem. 

[5. meditation]

8.1 Developing perseverance in this way, one should let the mind rest in the stillness of samadhi. A person whose mind is scattered, on the contrary, remains between the fangs of the afflictions.

8.2 With seclusion of the body and mind, scattering does not occur. Therefore, leaving the world behind, one should let fanciful thoughts flee away.

[6. wisdom]

9.1 All this groundwork the Sage set out only for the sake of wisdom. Therefore let wisdom be cultivated, with the wish that suffering should cease.

9.2 Conventional and ultimate [or concealing and ultimate]: these are esteemed as the two truths. Beyond the scope of human intelligence is reality. Intelligence is called the concealer.

9.3 Then the world is seen to be of two sorts: the yogi and the ordinary person, and the world of the ordinary is negated by the yogi's world.

9.4 When even yogis, with their particular differences in insight, negate one another, each side having something to prove, they are neglecting the point of practice.

9.5 Things are seen by the world and conceived of as real, instead of as like magic. Hence yogis and the world differ.

9.6 Visual forms and the rest, even when sensed directly, are provisionally assumed to be and not definitively proven. Like purity seen in what is impure, the assumption is false.

[From Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṁ]

Here, monks, a monk who has gone to the wilderness, or has gone to the root of a tree, or has gone to an empty place, sits. Folding his legs into the lotus posture, directing the body up, and thus establishing mindfulness to the fore, he, just being mindful breathes in, and just being mindful breathes out.
While breathing in long, he knows “I am breathing in long”,
or, while breathing out long, knows “I am breathing out long”;
or, while breathing in short, knows “I am breathing in short”,
or, while breathing out short, knows “I am breathing out short”.
“Being aware of the whole body, I will breathe in”: like this he trains;
“being aware of the whole body, I will breathe out”: like this he trains.
“Letting bodily doing cease, I will breathe in”: like this he trains;
“letting bodily doing cease, I will breathe out”: like this he trains.

[Beginning, middle and end of Nāgārjuna's Mūla-madhyamaka-kārikā]

1.1 Beyond cessation, beyond arising; beyond annihilation, beyond eternity;
Beyond singularity and multiplicity of meanings; beyond coming, beyond going,
1.2 The fully awakened Buddha taught the dependent arising which is the benign extinction of convenient fictions -- I praise him, the best of speakers.

26.1 The doings that lead to yet further becoming, a person engulfed in ignorance, in the three ways, does do – and by these actions, to a new sphere in the cycle of going, does go.
26.2 Divided consciousness, into the new sphere of going, does seep, having doings as its causal grounds. And so with the seeping in of this divided consciousness, psycho-physicality is instilled.
26.3 There again: With the instilling of psycho-physicality, there is the coming about of six senses. Six senses having arrived, there occurs contact.
26.4 Depending on eye, on form, and on the bringing of the two together – depending in other words on psycho-physicality – divided consciousness occurs.
26.5 When the threesome of form, consciousness and eye are combined, that is contact; and from that contact there occurs feeling.
26.6 With feeling as its causal grounds, there is thirsting – because the object of feeling is thirsted after. While thirsting is going on, taking hold takes hold in the four ways.
26.7 While taking hold is taking hold, the becoming arises of the taker – because becoming, if it were free of taking hold, would be liberated and would not become becoming.
26.8-9 Five aggregates, again, are becoming itself. Out of the becoming arises birth. The suffering and suchlike of ageing and death – sorrows, accompanied by bewailing and complaining; frustration, troubles – all this arises out of birth. In this way there is the coming into being of this whole aggregate of suffering.
26.10 The doings which are the root of saṁsāra thus does the ignorant one do. The ignorant one therefore is the doer; the wise one is not, because of the realisation of reality.
26.11 In the dispelling of ignorance, there is the non-coming-into-being of doings. At the same time, the dispelling of ignorance rests on the bringing-into-being of just this act of knowing.
26.12 By the stopping of this one and that one, this one and that one no longer advance. This whole aggregate of suffering in this way is completely prevented.

In the direction of abandoning all views
He taught the true dharma,
Putting compassion into practice --
I bow to him, Gautama.

What I have been reciting recently (2): A note on sarva and artha.

If you review the text reproduced in the previous post, and search for sarva, which means all or every, you will find it occurs 12 times in the first 12 verses.

This is one of the things I have noticed over the past few months, when I have been reciting these verses every day.

The past few months have been a fallow period for translation work, due to moving house followed by building work. So I have been getting my daily fix of Sanskrit mainly by reciting this selection of verses of Shantideva, inspired by the reciting on bodhisvara.com.

One of the things I noticed, day by day, while reciting these verses, and witnessing people's divisive responses to Brexit and the election of Donald Trump, was the recurrence of the word sarva.

In the chapter on embracing or adopting the bodhi-mind, the word sarva appears seven times in the first six verses.

So we are reminded, especially in 3.3, that the teaching of buddhas in which the bodhisattva rejoices brings happiness to all and gives benefit to all.

Again, the bodhisattva vows to become for all living beings the allayer of all kinds of suffering (3.6).

All kinds of suffering include, for example, the suffering of sickness (3.7). I notice in passing that the bodhisattva doesn't express the hope that I will become a medicine. The bodhisattva recognizes that I already am medicine -- if I did but know how to take myself and let myself act as a remedy, not only for myself but also for every being with whom I am connected (which means all creatures everywhere).

Other kinds of suffering are the suffering of hunger and thirst (3.8), and the suffering of poverty (3.9). But the fourth and final category of suffering that Shantideva alludes to, is to be living a life without meaning.

As one of the aims of life, artha generally means wealth. But in 3.10 as I have translated that verse, artha means meaning, value, what makes life worth living.

Sunday, 6 November 2016

What I have been reciting recently (Sanskrit/Pali Text)

Thirty verses from Śāntideva's Bodhicaryāvatāra:

[Fourteen verses on embracing the bodhi-mind]

apāya-duḥkha-viśrāmaṃ sarva-sattvaiḥ kṛtaṃ śubham |
anumode prasannena sukhaṃ tiṣṭhantu duḥkhitāḥ ||BCV3.1||

saṃsāra-duḥkha-nirmokṣam anumode śarīriṇām |

bodhisattvatva-buddhatvam anumode ca tāyinām ||BCV3.2||

cittotpāda-samudrāṃś ca sarva-sattva-sukhāvahān |

sarva-sattva-hitādhānān anumode ca śāsinām ||BCV3.3||

sarvāsu dikṣu saṃbuddhān prārthayāmi kṛtāñjaliḥ |

dharma-pradīpaṃ kurvantu mohād duḥkha-prapātinām ||BCV3.4||

nirvātu-kāmāṃś ca jinān yācayāmi kṛtāñjaliḥ |

kalpān anantāṃs tiṣṭhantu mā bhūd andham idaṃ jagat ||BCV3.5||

evaṃ sarvam idaṃ kṛtvā yan mayāsāditaṃ śubham |

tena syāṃ sarva-sattvānāṃ sarva-duḥkha-praśānti-kṛt ||BCV3.6||

glānānām asmi bhaiṣajyaṃ bhaveyaṃ vaidya eva ca |

tad-upasthāyakaś caiva yāvad rogāpunar-bhavaḥ ||BCV3.7||

kṣut-pipāsā-vyathāṃ hanyām anna-pāna-pravarṣaṇaiḥ  |

durbhikṣāntara-kalpeṣu bhaveyaṃ pāna-bhojanam ||BCV3.8||

daridrāṇāṃ ca sattvānāṃ nidhiḥ syām aham akṣayaḥ |

 nānopakaraṇākārair upatiṣṭheyam agrataḥ ||BCV3.9||

ātma-bhāvāṃs tathā bhogān sarva-try-adhva-gataṃ śubham |

nirapekṣas tyajāmy eṣa sarva-sattvārtha-siddhaye ||BCV3.10||

sarva-tyāgaś ca nirvāṇaṃ nirvāṇārthi ca me manaḥ |

tyaktavyaṃ cen mayā sarvaṃ varaṃ sattveṣu dīyatām ||BCV3.11||

yaś cāsukhī-kṛtaś cātmā mayāyaṃ sarva-dehinām |

ghnantu nindantu vā nityam ākirantu ca pāṃsubhiḥ ||BCV3.12||

krīḍantu mama kāyena hasantu vilasantu ca |

dattas tebhyo mayā kāyaś cintayā kiṃ mamānayā ||BCV3.13||

andhaḥ saṃkārakūṭebhyo yathā ratnam avāpnuyāt |

tathā kathaṃ-cid apy etad bodhi-cittaṃ mamoditam ||BCV3.27||

[The first three pāramitās - 1. giving, 2. ethical conduct, 3. tolerance]

phalena saha sarva-sva-tyāga-cittāj jane ’khile |
dāna-pāramitā proktā tasmāt sā cittam eva tu ||BCV5.10||

matsyādayaḥ kva nīyantāṃ mārayeyaṃ yato na tān |

labdhe virati-citte tu śīla-pāramitā matā ||BCV5.11||

kiyato mārayiṣyāmi dur-janān gaganopamān |

mārite krodha-citte tu māritāḥ sarva-śatravaḥ ||BCV5.12||

bhūmiṃ chādayituṃ sarvāṃ kutaś carma bhaviṣyati |

upānac-carma-mātreṇa channā bhavati medinī ||BCV5.13||

[tolerance continued] 

sarvam etat sucaritaṃ dānaṃ sugata-pūjanam |

kṛtaṃ kalpa-sahasrair yat pratighaḥ pratihanti tat  ||BCV6.1||

na ca dveṣa-samaṃ pāpaṃ na ca kṣānti-samaṃ tapaḥ |

tasmāt kṣāntiṃ prayatnena bhāvayed vividhair nayaiḥ ||BCV6.2||

[4. persevering effort]

evaṃ kṣamo bhajed vīryaṃ vīrye bodhir yataḥ sthitā |

na hi vīryaṃ vinā puṇyaṃ yathā vāyuṃ vinā gatiḥ ||BCV7.1||

kiṃ vīryaṃ kuśalotsāhas tad-vipakṣaḥ ka ucyate |

ālasyaṃ kutsitāsaktir viṣādātmāvamanyanā ||BCV7.2||

[5. meditation] 

vardhayitvaivam utsāhaṃ samādhau sthāpayen manaḥ |

vikṣipta-cittas tu naraḥ kleśa-daṃṣṭrāntare sthitaḥ ||BCV8.1 ||

kāya-citta-vivekena vikṣepasya na saṃbhavaḥ |

tasmāl lokaṃ parityajya vitarkān parivarjayet ||BCV8.2||

[Insert section on non-doing from Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṁ; see below] 

[6. wisdom] 

imaṃ parikaraṃ sarvaṃ prajñārthaṃ hi munir jagau |

tasmād utpādayet prajñāṃ duḥkha-nivṛtti-kāṅkṣayā ||BCV9.1||

saṃvṛtiḥ paramārthaś ca satya-dvayam idaṃ matam |

buddher agocaras tattvaṃ buddhiḥ saṃvṛtir ucyate ||BCV9.2||

tatra loko dvi-dhā dṛṣṭo yogī prākṛtakas tathā |

tatra prākṛtako loko yogi-lokena bādhyate ||BCV9.3||

bādhyante dhī-viśeṣeṇa yogino ’py uttarottaraiḥ | 

dṛṣṭāntenobhayeṣṭena kāryārtham avicārataḥ ||BCV9.4||

lokena bhāvā dṛśyante kalpyante cāpi tattvataḥ |

na tu māyāvad ity atra vivādo yogi-lokayoḥ ||BCV9.5||

pratyakṣam api rūpādi prasiddhyā na pramāṇataḥ |

aśucy-ādiṣu śucy-ādi prasiddhir iva sā mṛṣā ||BCV9.6||

[Insert selections from Nāgārjuna's Mūla-madhyamaka-kārikā; see below]

[From Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṁ]

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu araññagato vā, rukkhamūlagato vā, suññāgāragato vā, nisīdati. Pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā, ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya, parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā, so sato va assasati, sato va passasati.

Dīghaṁ vā assasanto “dīghaṁ assasāmī” ti pajānāti,
dīghaṁ vā passasanto “dīghaṁ passasāmī” ti pajānāti;
rassaṁ vā assasanto “rassaṁ assasāmī” ti pajānāti,
rassaṁ vā passasanto “rassaṁ passasāmī” ti pajānāti.

Sabbakāyapaṭisaṁvedī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
sabbakāyapaṭisaṁvedī passasissāmī ti sikkhati;
passambhayaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
passambhayaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ passasissāmī ti sikkhati.

[Beginning, middle and end of Nāgārjuna's Mūla-madhyamaka-kārikā]

anirodham anutpādam anucchedam aśāśvatam
anekārtham anānārtham anāgamam anirgamam ||MMK1.1||

yaḥ pratītya-samutpādaṁ prapañcopaśamaṁ śivam |
deśayām āsa saṁbuddhas taṁ vande vadatāṁ varam ||MMK1.2||

punar-bhavāya saṁskārān avidyā-nivṛtas tridhā |
abhisaṁskurute yāṁs tair gatiṁ gacchati karmabhiḥ ||MMK26.1||

vijñānaṁ saṁniviśate saṁskāra-pratyayaṁ gatau |
saṁniviṣṭe ‘tha vijñāne nāma-rūpaṁ niṣicyate ||MMK26.2||

niṣikte nāma-rūpe tu ṣaḍāyatana-saṁbhavaḥ |
ṣaḍāyatanam āgamya saṁsparśaḥ saṁpravartate ||MMK26.3||

cakṣuḥ pratītya rūpaṁ ca samanvāhāram eva ca |
nāma-rūpaṁ pratītyaivaṁ vijñānaṁ saṁpravartate ||MMK26.4||

saṁnipātas trayāṇāṁ yo rūpa-vijñāna-cakṣuṣām |
sparśaḥ saḥ tasmāt sparśāc ca vedanā saṁpravartate ||MMK26.5||

vedanā-pratyayā tṛṣṇā vedanārthaṁ hi tṛṣyate |
tṛṣyamāṇa upādānam upādatte catur-vidham ||MMK26.6||

upādāne sati bhava upādātuḥ pravartate |
syād dhi yady anupādāno mucyeta na bhaved bhavaḥ ||MMK26.7||

pañca skandhāḥ sa ca bhavaḥ bhavāj jātiḥ pravartate |
jarā-maraṇa-duḥkhādi śokāḥ sa-paridevanāḥ ||MMK26.8||

daurmanasyam upāyāsā jāter etat pravartate |
kevalasyaivam etasya duḥkha-skandhasya saṁbhavaḥ ||MMK26.9||

saṁsāra-mūlaṁ saṁskārān avidvān saṁskaroty ataḥ |
avidvān kārakas tasmān na vidvāṁs tattva-darśanāt ||MMK26.10||

avidyāyāṁ niruddhāyāṁ saṁskārāṇām asaṁbhavaḥ |
avidyāyā nirodhas tu jñānasyāsyaiva bhāvanāt ||MMK26.11||

tasya tasya nirodhena tat tan nābhipravartate |
duḥkha-skandhaḥ kevalo ‘yam evaṁ samyaṅ nirudhyate ||MMK26.12||

sarva-dṛṣṭi-prahāṇāya yaḥ saddharmam-adeśayat |
anukampām upādāya taṁ namasyāmi gautamam || MMK27.30

Monday, 15 August 2016

Śāntideva's Bodhicaryāvatāra, Opening of Chapter 9

Falling Away into a Way of Awakening

by Śāntideva

prajñā-pāramitā nāma navamaḥ paricchedaḥ ||
Chapter 9: The Perfection of Wisdom 

imaṃ parikaraṃ sarvaṃ prajñārthaṃ hi munir jagau |

tasmād utpādayet prajñāṃ duḥkha-nivṛtti-kāṅkṣayā ||BCV9.1||

All this groundwork the Sage did preach
Only for the sake of wisdom.
So may it be cultivated
With the wish that sorrow should cease.

saṃvṛtiḥ paramārthaś ca satya-dvayam idaṃ matam |

buddher agocaras tattvaṃ buddhiḥ saṃvṛtir ucyate ||BCV9.2||
Conventional and ultimate
(or concealing and ultimate):
These are esteemed as the two truths.
Beyond the mind's grasp, is what is.
Intellect is the Concealer.

tatra loko dvi-dhā dṛṣṭo yogī prākṛtakas tathā |

tatra prākṛtako loko yogi-lokena bādhyate ||BCV9.3||
The world, then, clearly has two types:
Men of practice and commonfolk,
And the world of the common man
Is assailed by the yogi's world.

bādhyante dhī-viśeṣeṇa yogino ’py uttarottaraiḥ | 

dṛṣṭāntenobhayeṣṭena kāryārtham avicārataḥ ||BCV9.4||
Yogis who, each with his insight,
Assail even one another,
Since both sides have something to prove,
Are missing the point of practice.

lokena bhāvā dṛśyante kalpyante cāpi tattvataḥ |

na tu māyāvad ity atra vivādo yogi-lokayoḥ ||BCV9.5||
Things are seen by men of the world,
And treated as if they were real,
Instead of as like magic; hence
A yogi and the world differ.

pratyakṣam api rūpādi prasiddhyā na pramāṇataḥ |

aśucy-ādiṣu śucy-ādi prasiddhir iva sā mṛṣā ||BCV9.6||
Forms, even when sensed directly,
Are based on assumption not proof.
Like purity seen in what is
Impure, the assumption is false.

This as I read it forms the opening section of chapter 9. From verse 7, depending on how one reads that verse, the chapter consists of objections by opponents and responses to those objections. For a translator it is a minefield into which, for the moment, I hesitate to tread. 

The three words which make up the 3rd pāda of verse 2, buddher agocaras tattvam, can be translated in any number of ways. The discipline of sticking to eight syllables led me to translate above Beyond the mind's grasp, is what is. Whatever the English translation, the point is that reality is beyond the scope of our human intellect, however intelligent we might be.

Lionel Barnett's translation (1909) is published here by the University of Oslo's TLB. Barnett has: 
The Reality is beyond the range of the understanding. 

Parmananda Sharma's translation (1990) has:
Reality or 'tattva' being unattainable by intelligence...

The translation by Vesna and Alan Wallace (1997) has: 
Ultimate reality is beyond the scope of the intellect. 

Thus, when it came to  buddher agocaras tattvam, my impression is that Śāntideva stated the case so clearly that, in the spirit of hitting a barn door with a banjo, none of the above translators missed the target, but each hit it in his or her own way. 

buddher agocaras tattvam. 
Reality is beyond the scope, beyond the grasp, out of the range, of our human intellect. 
In this statement, my Zen teacher Gudo Nishijima -- who liked to paint with a broad brush -- used to emphasize, is the whole of Gautama Buddha's teaching. 

How to realize that teaching is the question. 

Or perhaps the question is better put: How to let that teaching realize itself? 
(Not so much "My will be done," then, as "Thy will be done.") 

How to prevent our human ignorance from hindering that teaching which is always waiting to realize itself. 

One kind of ignorance is the kind of intellectual arrogance against which Dogen cautioned in the opening part of Fukan-zazengi -- the intellectual arrogance of thinking that I know a thing or two about what enlightenment is.

To guard against such intellectual arrogance, my teacher recommended pulling in the chin so as to stretch the back of the neck. 

This, ironically enough, turned out to be another variation on the theme of ignorance.

This is the backround against which, sooner or later, one way or another, by hook or by crook, I would like to clarify how I have come to understand Nāgārjuna's words (MMK26.10) that 
saṁsāra-mūlaṁ saṁskārān, avidvān saṁskaroty ataḥ.
"The doings which are the root of saṁsāra thus does the ignorant one do." 

Or, alternatively, using a more conventional translation of  saṁskārān:
"The karmic formations at the root of saṁsāra thus does the foolish one form." 

Monday, 8 August 2016

Śāntideva / Groundwork

The Buddha Śākyamuni lived in India in the 6th century BC. Aśvaghoṣa and Nāgārjuna lived in India around the 1st century AD. Bodhidharma was born in India but went to China in the 5th or 6th century AD.

The Buddha transmitted the Dharma to Mahā-kāśyapa who transmitted the Dharma to Ānanda and so on. Counting Mahā-kāśyapa as number 1, Aśvaghoṣa was no. 12; Nāgārjuna was no. 14; and Bodhidharma was no. 28. Bodhidharma became no. 1 in China after journeying there by ship.

Śāntideva lived in India in the 8th century AD, five or six hundred years after Nāgārjuna lived in India, and two or three hundred years after Bodhidharma went to China. So Śāntideva was active at the great centre of learning at Nālandā in India at the time when the successors of Bodhidharma were vigorously engaged in exercising the Buddha's wisdom, during the golden age of Chinese Zen, in Tang Dynasty China.

The line passing from the Buddha through Nāgārjuna to Bodhidharma, as Dogen transmitted it from China to Japan in the 13th century, includes other celebrated Indian teachers like Kanadeva (aka Āryadeva; no. 15) and Vasubandhu (no. 21), who preceded Bodhidharma, but this line naturally does not include Śāntideva who lived in India two hundred years or so after Bodhidharma left India for China.

Nevertheless, there are a couple of motivating factors encouraging me to study Śāntideva's poetry, as part of the kind of spadework that I like to do, feeling -- very possibly with a vanity born of ignorance -- that such spadework might eventually be useful for others.

First, the Dalai Lama and his students evidently hold Śāntideva in the highest regard as an explicator of Nāgārjuna's teaching. Thus in a 1988 foreword to a translation of Śāntideva's Bodhi[sattva]cāryāvatāra (or "Entry into the Bodhisattva's Way of Life"), DL wrote:
In this masterpiece, the author, who belonged to he Madhyamika school of Nagarjuna, describes in detail the conduct of a bodhisattva, one who aspires to attain supreme enlightenment or Buddhahood for the benefit of all other sentient beings. Acharya Shantideva himself was a bodhisattva, who, while strictly observing the code of monastic discipline, was inwardly a realized tantric adept. Bodhisattvacharyavatara was clearly derived from the author's conduct of his own life, and it is its essentially practical nature that gives the book its universal, timeless appeal.
Second, a few months ago I came upon this website, bodhisvara.com, which features a recitation of the whole of  Śāntideva's great poem by Kashinath Nyaupane, Head of the Department of Buddha's Teaching (Bauddha Darshana) at the Nepal Sanskrit University, For several years I had hoped to find such a recitation, preferably of Aśvaghoṣa's poetry, to parrot out loud. This recitation by Prof. Nyaupane, even though it is the poetry of Śāntideva and not of Aśvaghoṣa, still fits the bill perfectly.

So I have started memorizing Śāntideva's poetry verse by verse, as I did for Aśvaghoṣa's two epic poems, except this time with more attention to the cadences and pronunciation of the original, as beautifully rendered by a natural Sanskrit speaker.

When I first translated it, in the more literal style that I adopted for Aśvaghoṣa's epic poems, the first verse in BCV chapter nine came out like this:

All this preliminary teaching the Sage sang out for the sake of wisdom./ 
Therefore let wisdom be caused to emerge, with the wish that suffering should cease.// 

Then, over a matter of days as I memorized and recited the original, parrotting Prof. Nyaupane, and being mindful of Ānandajoti Bhikkhu's example in translating Pāḷi verse, I decided to impose on myself the discipline of mirroring the original Sanskrit's śloka metre, according to which each of four pādas has eight syllables. The end result was this:

imaṃ parikaraṃ sarvaṃ prajñārthaṃ hi munir jagau |

tasmād utpādayet prajñāṃ duḥkha-nivṛtti-kāṅkṣayā ||BCV9.1||

All this groundwork the Sage did preach
Only for the sake of wisdom.
So may it be cultivated
With the wish that sorrow should cease. 

As a translation of parikaram, on reflection, I do like groundwork.  Groundwork first sort of forced itself on me as representing a saving of five syllables over "preliminary teaching" and a saving of two syllables over "preparation" -- wherein the secret surely lies.  But gradually groundwork began to grow on me. Digging, after all, is one of my favourite things, both metaphorically and -- particularly in the growing of winter radishes -- literally.

Parikaram according to the dictionary means "what helps or assists; attendants, followers, entourage, retinue, train." What Śāntideva meant by parikaram, in context, was the content of the previous eight chapters covering the Bodhi-mind, and the other pāramitās. He was emphasizing that the one great purpose, as the Lotus Sutra also emphasizes, is the Buddha's wisdom, prajñā-pāramitā.

This wisdom, the second verse emphasizes, is no more amenable to intellectual understanding than darkness and drought are amenable to the growing of winter radishes.

saṃvṛtiḥ paramārthaś ca satya-dvayam idaṃ matam |
buddher agocaras tattvaṃ buddhiḥ saṃvṛtir ucyate ||BCV9.2||

Conventional and ultimate
(or concealing and ultimate):
These are esteemed as the two truths.
Beyond the mind's grasp, is what is.

Intellect is the Concealer.

On those grounds, may the wisdom of the Buddha -- as propounded by Aśvaghoṣa, Nāgārjuna, Kanadeva, Vasubhandhu, Bodhidharma, and the Zen masters of China and Japan -- be cultivated. And here's hoping that the cultivation may be aided rather than hindered by another load of old manure from me.

Monday, 6 June 2016


Bodhicitta -- the mind of a bodhisattva:

The will to benefit all living beings because of a buddha's, or the Buddha's, enlightenment. 

Friday, 27 May 2016

When the white moon's full
Of deep blue sky, 
I do not know
For there is no I. 

But this dropping off
Of me and mine
Still has to do
With my head and spine.

Monday, 16 May 2016

Ratnāvalī, Chapter Five

tataḥ pravrajitenādau kāryaḥ śikṣādaraḥ paraḥ |
prati[mokṣe sa]vinaye bāhu-śrutye ’rtha-nirṇaye ||RV5.1||
Then the one gone forth first should train with the utmost sincerity / With a view to liberation through the pratimokṣa disicipline, with a view to listening well and learning much, and with a view to clarification of meaning.//

tato doṣāḥ prahātavyāḥ kṣudra-vastuka-saṃjñitāḥ |
yatnena sapta-pañcāśat kīrtyamānān nibodha tān ||RV5.2||
On those grounds, the faults known as 'matters for the meticulous' are to be abandoned: / Listen carefully as those fifty-seven are recited: //

krodhaś citta-prakopo ’sminn upanāho ’nu[bandha-kṛt] |
pāpa-pracchāndanaṃ mrakṣaḥ pradāśaḥ pāpa-saṅgitā ||RV5.3||
Anger [1] is a flaring up of the mind. Lasting enmity [2] is a symptom of that anger. / Hypocrisy [3] is wrong-doing being concealed. Resentment [4] is a clinging to wrongs done. //

māyeti vañcanā śāṭhyaṃ citta-saṃtāna-jihmatā |
īrṣyā para-guṇais tāpo mātsaryaṃ tyāga-bhīrutā ||RV5.4|
Duplicity [5] is deception. Dishonesty [6] is continuing with falsehood in one's mind. / Envy [7] is self-mortification via the assets of others. Stinginess [8] is fear of letting go. //

ahrīkatā-na-'patrāpye sva-pareṣām a-lajjane |
asaṃnati-kṛtaḥ stambhaḥ saṃrambhaḥ kopi-vibhramaḥ ||RV5.5||
Shamelessness [9] and non-embarrassment [10] are a lack of modesty where self and others are concerned. / Stiff-necked arrogance [11] is failure to practise humility. End-gaining [12] is being in a furious hurry. //

mado darpaḥ pramādas tu kuśaleṣv aprayogitā |
mānaḥ punaḥ sapta-vidhas taṃ vakṣyāmi prabhedataḥ ||RV5.6||
To be intoxicated by hubris [13] is conceit; while the intoxication of heedlessness [14] is failure to apply oneself to good practices./ Pride [15], again, is analysed seven ways, as I will describe: //

tatrābhimanyamānasya hīnād dhīnaṃ samāt samam |
hīnād vādhikam ātmānaṃ samād vā māna ucyate ||RV5.7||
Within that [category], fancying oneself to be lower than the low, or level with the middling, / Or higher than the low or the middling, is called pride [i]. //

yo ’dhamas tulyam ātmānaṃ viśiṣṭād abhimanyate |
so ’timāno viśiṣṭebhyo viśiṣṭaṃ yo ’bhimanyate ||RV5.8||
When the lowest one, because of distinction [in some area], fancies himself to be equal, / That is exceeding pride [ii]. When one thinks oneself superior to the superior, //

mānātimāno yo ’tyarthaṃ samucchraye samucchrayaḥ |
piṭako vātisaṃrabdho gaṇḍopari samutthitaḥ ||RV5.9||
When one is excessively arrogant even among the arrogant, there is aggrandizement upon aggrandizement [iii] – / Or a very angry boil appearing upon a cyst. //

yad upādāna-saṃjñeṣu skandheṣv eteṣu pañcasu |
mohād aham iti grāhaḥ so ’smi-māna udāhṛtaḥ ||RV5.10||
With regard to these five skandhas called “the aggregates of clinging,” / Conceiving out of ignorance an “I,” is called the pride of “I am.” [iv] //

abhimāno yad aprāpte phale prāptābhimānitā |
pāpa-karma-kriyā ślāghyā mithyā-mānaṃ vidur budhāḥ ||RV5.11||
Conceit [v] is fancying fruit not yet attained to have been attained. / Praising oneself for wrong-doing the wise know to be false pride [vi].//

niṣprayojana evāham iti yā [tv ātma-nin]danā |
so ’dhamo māna ity ete saptāpy uktāḥ samāsataḥ ||RV5.12||
But when self-deprecation finds expression in the words "I am utterly useless,"/ That is called the pride of inferiority [vii]. These in brief are referred to as the seven. //

kuhanā lābha-satkāra-hetor indriya-saṃvaraḥ |
lapanā lābha-satkāra-hetoś cāṭu-puras-kriyā ||RV5.13||
Pretence [16] is sensory restraint with the agenda of winning favourable treatment. / Being all talk [17] is the behaviour of being ready with sweet words, with the agenda of winning favourable treatment.//

naimittika-tvaṃ tat-prāptyai para-dravya-praśaṃsanam |
naiṣpeṣikatvaṃ lābhārthaṃ samakṣaṃ para-paṃsanam ||RV5.14||
Intimation [18] is praising another's possession for the purpose of obtaining it. / Unscrupulous acquisition [19] is openly shaming others with gain in view. //

peṣikā: rind, shell (of a fruit). As a translation of naiṣpeṣikatvaṃ, “unscrupulous acquisition” is a stopgap. TLB has “artful acquisition.” The Zen Site has "pressured acquisition."

lābhena lipsā lābhānāṃ pūrva-labdha-praśaṃsanam |
śiṅguḥ prakopitasyānyais tat tad yad anuśiñjanam ||RV5.15||
Praising what has already been acquired [shows] a desire to make [further] acquisitions, acquisitively [20]. / Parroting [21] is the rote repetition of an annoyance instigated by others.//

The translation of the second line is a another stopgap.
śiñj: to utter a shrill sound, tinkle, rattle, jingle, whirr, buzz, hum, twang, bellow, roar.
TLB: "Reciting faults is to repeat the mistakes made by others." 

The Zen Site: “Repeating faults is to recite again and again the mistakes made by others.”
The Chinese does not offer much help:
由施欲求利 或讚彼先德
說名利求利 此五邪命攝
若人緣他失 心數種種誦
說名為愔隘 此或習恨心
Desiring profit through giving,
Or by praising the other's previous merit,
Is called profit seeking profit;
This causes absorption of the five improper ways [of gain or livelihood for a monk].
Or a person indirectly causing others' loss,
The Mind repeatedly reciting in various ways, 
Is called “the comfortable strategic pass” (愔隘);
This sometimes habituates into resentment.

staimityaṃ viklavī-bhāvo ’pratisaṃkhyāna-roga-jaḥ |
ātmopakaraṇe hīne nidrā-saṅgo ’lasasya vā ||RV5.16||
Fixity [22] is a state of fearful agitation, born of lack of tranquil consideration. / In the absence of the lazy doing anything to help themselves, there is the clinging to slumber of the lazy [23].

nānātva-saṃjñā saṃjñā yā rāga-dveṣa-tamo-vṛtā |
amanas-kāram āhus taṃ yac cittasyānavekṣaṇam ||RV5.17||
Discrimination against diversity [24] is consciousness veiled by redness, hatred, and darkness./ That of the mind which is not attentive has been called “inattention” [25].

pratirūpa-kriyāsv ālasyād yā gaurava-hīnatā |
guruṣv abhagavad-vṛttir eṣā durjana-saṃmatā ||RV5.18||
Stemming from laziness is lack of proper appreciation of exemplary actions [26]. / Unprepossessing behaviour towards gurus [27] is generally recognized as the conduct of a scoundrel.//

gardho ’lpa-paryavasthānaṃ kāma-rāga-samudbhavam |
parigardho ’rtha-kāmotthaṃ paryu[tthā]naṃ mahattaram ||RV5.19||
Eagerness [28] is a small aberration arising out of the redness of desire. / Over-eagerness [29] is a greater egress, arising out of desire to gain an end. //

lobhaḥ sva-dravya-saṃgṛddhir āgo 'vyavasitaṃ manaḥ |
para-dvaryeṣv abhiṣvaṅgo viṣamo lobha ucyate ||RV5.20||
Cupidity [30] is greedy attachment to one's belongings. Being remiss is a negligent mind. [31] / Over-attachment to the belongings of others is called undue cupidity [32].

TLB: āgāvyavasitaṃ manaḥ. Taking āgo 'vyavasitaṃ manaḥ as an independent clause – “being remiss” (āgas) “is a negligent mind” (avyavasitaṃ manaḥ) – is another stop-gap solution. It at least has the virtue of bringing the number of faults up to the requisite 57.

adharma-rāgo varjyāsu strīṣv abhiṣvaṅga-sādhutā |
pāpeccha-tā nirguṇasya guṇavat-prakriyā-vidhiḥ ||RV5.21||
Passion that goes against dharma, towards unavailable women, is directness caused by over-attachment [33]./ The bad desire which belongs to the state without virtue [34], is a matter that calls for prioritizing the state which has virtue. //

mahecchatātipraṇayaḥ saṃtoṣa-śrī-vilaṅghanam |
icchepsutā kathaṃ vidyuḥ sadbhūtair māṃ guṇair iti ||RV5.22||
Having great desire [35] is undue partiality, a transgression of the auspicious state which is contentment./ [Thinking] “How might they know me as having qualities which are really good?” is a state of striving to realize a desire [36].

akṣāntir aparādhānāṃ [duḥ]khānāṃ cāsahiṣṇutā |
anācāro ya ācārya-guru-kāryeṣv anādaraḥ ||RV5.23||
Lack of forbearance [37] is an inability to endure offences and sufferings./ Failure to do the right thing [38] is insincerity in regard to tasks set by a teacher or guru.//

daur-vacasyaṃ yad uktaṃ saddharmaṃ nādriyate vacaḥ |
vitarko jñāti-saṃbandho jñātiṣu sneha-saṅgitā ||RV5.24||
What is called “bad language” is speech in which true dharma is disregarded [39]./ The idea of banding together with relatives is sentimental attachment to one's kin [40].//

tathā jānapadas ta[d ya]d atyarthaṃ tad-guṇoktitā |
tathāmara-vitarko yan na mṛtyu-bhaya-śaṅkitā ||RV5.25||
Likewise belonging to a country is a state of excessively proclaiming that country's merits [41]. / Again, the idea of not dying is a lack of apprehension about and fear of death [42]. //

anuvijñapti-saṃyukto vitarkaḥ katham eva mām |
sataiva guṇa-jātena guruṃ kuryuḥ parā iti ||RV5.26||
An idea that is connected with being recognized is: / “How might others make me their guru, due to [my] truly having good qualities.” [43] //

parānudayatā-yu[k]to vitarko yat parān prati |
sneha-vyāpāda-saṃsparśādd hitāhita-vicintanam ||RV5.27||
An idea connected with failure to promote others is [shown in] deliberating, in regard to others, about whether or not to benefit them, on the basis of a mixture of love and hate [44]. //

aratir lupta-dhairyasya samutkaṇṭhāvilaṃ manaḥ |
tandrī gātrāvasādottham ālasyam atarasvinaḥ ||RV5.28||
Discontent [45] is a function of disrupted fortitude. Pining [46] is an unclear mind. / Lassitude [47] is the idleness, arising from bodily torpor, of one who is not energetic. //

vijṛmbhikā kleśa-vaśāt kāya-vaktra-vijṛmbhaṇam |
bhakta-saṃmadam atyāśād āhuḥ kāyasya mūrcchanam ||RV5.29||
Gasping for breath [48] is due to afflictive emotion; it is a straining of the body and of the organs of speech. / Exhilaration at taking food [49] has been called a stupidity of the body caused by eating too much. //

ceto-līnatvam uddiṣṭaṃ cittasyātyartha-dīnatā |
kāmacchando vibhāvo yaḥ kāmānāṃ guṇa-pañcake ||RV5.30||
Getting mentally stuck [50] is described as undue weakness of the mind./ A liking for desires [51] is the cause of emotional longings directed towards the five attributes of the five elements.

vyāpādo nava-hetūtthā parasyānartha-cetanā |
ātma-mitrā[ri]pakṣeṣu traikālyānartha-śaṅkina ||RV5.31||
Ill-will [52] is a state of consciousness, arising from nine causes, in which one wishes adversity upon others – / By imagining of adversity, in three times in relation to self, friends, and enemies. //

Grammar of śaṅkina? Query śaṅkinā.

styāna yat kāya-manasor guru-tvād apakarmatā |
middhaṃ nidrāndhyam suddhatyaṃ kāya-cittāpraśāntatā ||RV5.32||
Sloth [53] is inactivity stemming from heaviness of body and mind./ [Another kind of] lethargy is sleepiness [54]. Undue excitement [55] is a state of physical and mental disquiet. //

The meaning of suddhatyam has not been traced. 

TLB: “Excitement is a lack of physical and mental peace.” 
Chinese: 身心掉名動, "Agitation of the body-mind is called excitement."

kaukṛtyaṃ ku-kṛte śokaḥ paścāt tāpa-samudbhavaḥ |
vicikitsā mati-dvaidhaṃ satya-ratna-trayādiṣu ||RV5.33||
Contrition [56] is anguish about having acted badly; it arises latterly, causing torment. / Indecision [57] is to be in two minds about the [four] truths, the three jewels, and so on.//

etāni bodhisattvena tyājyāni yatinādhikam |
doṣair etair vimukto hi guṇānāṃ sevate sukham ||RV5.34||
These faults are to be abandoned by a bodhisattva; there are more to be abandoned by the ascetic./ For, when one is freed from these faults, the virtues are easily practised. //

āsevyā bodhisattvena guṇās tatra samāsataḥ |
dāna-śīla-kṣamā-vīrya-dhyāna-prajñā-kṛpādayaḥ ||RV5.35||
The virtues to be practised by a bodhisattva on that path are, in summary: / Free giving, ethical conduct, forbearance, perseverance, meditation, wisdom, compassion and so on. //

dānaṃ svārtha-parityāgaḥ śīlaṃ para-hita-kriyā |
kṣāntiḥ krodha-vinirmuktir vīryaṃ śubha-parigrahaḥ ||RV5.36||
Free giving means completely letting go of one's own things; ethical conduct is action that benefits others; / Forgiveness is freedom from anger; perseverance is taking the virtues into one's possession.//

dhyānam aikāgryam akliṣṭaṃ prajñā satyārtha-niścayaḥ |
kṛpā sarveṣu sattveṣu karuṇaika-rasā matiḥ ||RV5.37||
Meditation is unafflicted single-mindedness; wisdom is exactly knowing the meaning of the truths. / Compassion is the mind whose one taste is kindness towards all beings. //

dānād bhogaḥ sukhaṃ śīlāt kṣāntyāḥ kāntiḥ śramād dyutiḥ |
dhyānāc chāntir mater muktiḥ kṛpā sarvārtha-sādhanī ||RV5.38||
From free giving stems prosperity; from ethical conduct, happiness; from forbearance, loveliness; from effort, brilliance; / From meditation, peace; from understanding, freedom. Compassion leads straight to the accomplishment of every aim. //

saptabhiḥ sakalais tv ebhir yugapat pāram āgataiḥ |
acintya-jñāna-viṣayaṃ loka-nātha-tvam āpyate ||RV5.39||
But with the simultaneous realizing of all these seven together, / The highest realm of unthinkable wisdom is attained – a state of ownership of the world. //

yathā śrāvaka-yāne ’ṣṭāv uktāḥ śrāvaka-bhūmayaḥ |
mahāyāne daśa tathā bodhisattvasya bhūmayaḥ ||RV5.40||
Just as in the vehicle of the śrāvaka eight stages of a śrāvaka are described,/ Likewise in the great vehicle there are ten stages of a bodhisattva. //

The ten stages of bodhisattva development in the great vehicle (mahāyāne daśa bodhisattvasya bhūmayaḥ; 大乘菩薩十地) are, as defined by Soothill and Hodous:
1. Pramuditā (歡喜地), joy at having overcome the former difficulties and now entering on the path to Buddhahood;
2. Vimalā (離垢地), freedom from all possible defilement, the stage of purity;
3 Prabhākarī (發光地), stage of further enlightenment;
4. Arciṣmatī (焰慧地), stage of glowing wisdom;
5. Sudurjayā (極難勝地), mastery of utmost or final difficulties [but cf. Nāgārjuna's description below];
6. Abhimukhī (現前地), the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and purity;
7. Dūraṁgamā (遠行地), proceeding afar, getting above ideas of self in order to save others;
8. Acalā (不動地), attainment of calm unperturbedness;
9. Sādhumatī (善慧地), stage of the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessed of the ten powers;
10, Dharmamegha (法雲地), attaining to the fertilizing powers of the law-cloud. Each of the ten stages is connected with each of the ten pāramitās – i.e. the six pārāmitas plus adaptability / skillful means (upāya, 方便); vowing (praṇidhāna; 願); force of purpose (bala; 力), and [final] knowing (jñāna / ājñā; 智).

tāsāṃ pūrvaṃ pramuditā bodhisattva-pramodanāt |
saṃyojana-traya-hānes tathāgata-kulodbhavāt ||RV5.41||
The first of these stages is Gladness, because of a bodhisattva's rejoicing / From having abandoned three fetters and been born into a lineage of the Tathāgata.//

Three fetters: see SN Canto 17.

jāyate ’syā vipākena dāna-pāramitā-paraḥ |
loka-dhātu-śatākampī jambūdvīpa-maheśvaraḥ ||RV5.42||
With the maturing of this stage, the perfection of giving is foremost. / Shaking a thousand regions of the world, [the bodhisattva] attains wide sovereignty over the southern continent of Jambū-dvīpa. //

dvitīyā vimalā nāma kāya-vāk-citta-karmaṇām |
daśānām api vaimalyāt prakṛtyā teṣv avasthiteḥ ||RV5.43||
The second stage is called The Untainted, because of the untaintedness of the ten kinds of action, of body, speech and mind, / And because of abiding in those actions in one's natural state. //

jāyate ’syā vipākena śīla-pāramitā-paraḥ |
sapta-ratna-prabhuḥ śrīmāṃś cakravartī jagadd-hitaḥ ||RV5.44||
With the maturing of this stage, the perfection of ethical conduct is foremost. / [The bodhisattva] becomes a possessor of the seven treasures, as an illustrious wheel-roller, benefiting the world.//

Sapta-ratna, the seven treasures are variously defined as, for example, gold, silver, lapis lazuli, crystal, agate, rubies (or red pearls), cornelian; or, in the context of a cakravartin's possessions, the golden wheel, elephants, dark swift horses, the divine pearl (or beautiful pearls); able ministers of the Treasury, jewels of women, and loyal generals.

prabhākarī tṛtīyā tu śānta-jñāna-prabhodbhavāt |
dhyānābhijñā-samutpādād rāga-dveṣa-parikṣayāt ||RV5.45||
The third stage, then, is The Luminous, because of the arising of the light of the wisdom of coming to quiet, / Because of the arising together of the [four] stages of meditation and the [six] powers of knowing, and because of the evaporation of lust and hatred. //

TLB: pabhākarī

jāyate ’syā vipākena kṣānti-vīryādhika-kriyaḥ |
kṛtī maheśākhyaḥ devānāṃ kāma-rāga-nivartakaḥ ||RV5.46||
With the maturing of this stage, the practice of forbearance and perseverance comes to the fore. / [The bodhisattva] becomes a great and powerful ruler of the gods, an accomplished man of action, having turned back from the redness of desire. //

caturthy arciṣmatī nāma saṃyag-jñānārcir-udbhavāt |
bhāvanād bodhi-pakṣāṇāṃ sakalānāṃ viśeṣataḥ ||RV5.47||
The fourth stage is called The Shining, because of the arising of the radiance of true wisdom, / Stemming especially from the cultivation, all together, of the [thirty-seven] things on the side of awakening. //

jāyate ’syā vipākena suyāmālaya-deva-rāṭ |
sat-kāya-dṛṣṭi-saṃparka-samudghāta-karaḥ kṛtī ||RV5.48||
With the maturing of this stage, [the bodhisattva] becomes a king in the abode of the Suyāma gods, / Being accomplished in ending adulteration by the view which sees the body as [separately] existing. // 

sudurjayā pañcamī tu sarva-māraiḥ sudurjayāt |
ārya-satyādi-sūkṣmārtha-jñāna-kauśala-saṃbhavāt ||RV5.49||
The fifth stage, though, is The Very Hard to Beat, because [the bodhisattva is] very hard for any Māra to beat / After he has realized skill in knowing the subtle meaning of the noble truths and so on. //

jāyate ’syā vipākena tuṣitālaya-deva-rāṭ |
sarva-tīrtha-kara-kleśa-dṛṣṭi-sthāna-nivartakaḥ ||RV5.50||
With the maturing of this stage, [the bodhisattva] becomes king of the abode of the Tuṣita gods,/ Turned back from the afflictive emotions, the views, and the positions of all the sectarians. //

ṣaṣṭhī tv abhimukhī nāma buddha-dharmābhimukhya-taḥ |
vipaśyanā-śamābhyāsān nirodhāvāpti-puṣkalā ||RV5.51||
The sixth stage is called The Turned Towards, because of [the bodhisattva] being turned towards a buddha's dharma, / Through the pervading quietness of insight. It is a stage resonant with realization of cessation. //

jāyate ’syā vipākena deva-rājaḥ sunirmitaḥ |
śrāvakānām asaṃhārya ādhimānika-śaṃkaraḥ ||RV5.52||
With the maturing of this stage, [the bodhisattva] becomes a king of the Su-nirmita gods, / A pacifier of the conceited, who cannot be encumbered by śrāvakas.//

dūraṃ-gamā saptamī tu saṃkhyā-dūraṃgamānvayāt |
āpadyate nirodhaṃ ca yasmād asyāṃ kṣaṇe kṣaṇe ||RV5.53||
The seventh stage, then, is The Far Reaching, because it is associated with reasoning that goes far, // On which grounds, in this stage, [the bodhisattva] takes possession of cessation at every moment.//

jāyate ’syā vipākena vaśa-varty amarādhipaḥ |
ārya-satyābhisamaya-jñānācārya-mahā-nṛpaḥ ||RV5.54||
With the maturing of this stage, [the bodhisattva] becomes an all-powerful ruler of the Immortals; / A great protector of men among those who teach the act of knowing, with integral understanding of the noble truths. //

kumāra-bhūmir acalā niścala-tvāt tathāṣṭamī | ... ||RV5.55
The eighth stage, a youth-stage, is The Imperturbable because, again, of its unshakeability. / ...
童子地不動 由不出真觀
無分別難思 非身口意境
The youth stage is The Imperturbable,
Because of not leaving true reflection,
It is free of intellectual discrimination, unthinkable,
Beyond the boundaries of body, speech, and mind.

因此地果報 方便智現前
得為大梵王 能通第一義
證方便勝智 六度生無間
於三乘世俗 為最第一師
With the maturing of this stage,
The wisdom of expedient means (upāya-pāramitā) is to the fore.
[The bodhisattva] becomes a great Brahmā-King,
Capable of penetrating the ultimate truth.
He establishes the excellent wisdom of expedient means.
The six perfections arise without any gap.
To the three vehicles and the world,
[The bodhisattva] becomes a supreme teacher.

第九名善慧 法王太子位
此中智最勝 由通達四辯
The ninth stage is called Sādhu-matī, Understanding that Hits the Target,
With the rank of an heir-apparent to the king of dharma.
In this state, wisdom is of the highest order,
Because of realization of the four kinds of discernment.

因此地果報 願度常現前
勝遍光梵主 淨土等自在
二乘等不及 於真俗一義
俱修動靜故 行二利無間
With the maturing of this stage,
The perfection of vowing (praṇidhāna-pāramitā) is constantly to the fore.
As a Brahma-ruler who excellently radiates light,
[The Bodhisattva] freely exercises sovereignty over pure lands.
The two vehicles and the like cannot match
The paramount meaning which unites the true and the profane.
Because of ethical conduct, perseverance and quietness, all together,
He practises for the dual benefit [of self and others] without any gap.

第十名法雲 能雨正法雨
佛光水灌身 受佛灌頂位
The tenth stage, called Dharma-megha, The Cloud of Dharma,
Is able to rain the rain of true dharma,
Which showers the body with the light and water of Buddha.
[The bodhisattva] receives the Buddha's shower on the crown of his head.

因此地果報 力度常現前
為遍淨梵王 四答難無等...
因此地果報 智度常現前
為淨居梵王 大自在天王
智慧境難思 諸佛祕密藏
得具足自在 後生補處位
With the maturing of this stage,
The perfection of forcefulness (bala-pāramitā) is constantly to the fore.
[The bodhisattva] becomes a Brahma-king of universal purity.
The four ways of answering [questions] whose difficulty is unequalled ...
With the maturing of this stage,
The perfection of knowing (jñāna-pāramitā) is constantly to the fore.
[The bodhisattva] becomes a Brahma-king of the pure abode,
A king of the great gods of freewill.
[The bodhisattva's] wisdom, its limits unthinkable,
Is the secret treasury of the buddhas.
He takes full possession of freedom,
With the rank of one who when born later will make good the state [of buddha].

如此菩薩地 十種我已說
佛地與彼異 具勝德難量
Thus the bodhisattva's
Ten stages, I have explained.
The difference between the stage of buddha and those stages,
Equipped as they are with excellent merits, is immeasurable.

此地但略說 十力等相應
隨此一一力 難量如虛空
These stages have been explained only in brief,
Corresponding with the ten powers.
Each one of these powers
Is as hard to fathom as space.

如此等可言 諸佛無量德
如十方虛空 及地水火風
Such merits as these may be called
The immeasurable merits of the buddhas,
Like space in the ten directions,
And earth, water, fire and wind.

諸佛無量德 於餘人難信
若不見此因 難量如此果
The immeasurable merits of the buddhas
Would be, in the case of other people, unbelievable.
If one does not see this cause,
Similarly hard to fathom is this effect.

為此因及果 現前佛支提
日夜各三遍 願誦二十偈
On account of this cause and effect,
Serve offerings before a buddha.
Three times every day-and-night,
Recite the twenty verses:

[Verse 1; RV5.66]
諸佛法及僧 一切諸菩薩
我頂禮歸依 餘可尊亦敬
To buddhas, to the dharma, and to the sangha,
To all bodhisattvas,
I bow my head and devote myself,
Also paying respects to other venerable ones.

[Verse 2; RV5.67]
我離一切惡 攝持一切善
眾生諸善行 隨喜及順行
Leaving behind all wrongdoing,
I shall practise all that is good.
The good acts of living beings
I shall rejoice in and follow.

[Verse 3; RV5.68]
頭面禮諸佛 合掌勸請住
願為轉法輪 窮生死後際
With head and face bowing to the buddhas,
With joined palms, asking permission to dwell among them,
I request turning of the dharma wheel,
Until birth and death have been exhausted.

[Verse 4; RV5.69]
從此行我德 已作及未作
因此願眾生 皆發菩提心
Whatever merit there is from this action I am doing,
Have done, and am yet do,
Because of this, may living beings
All establish the bodhi-mind.

[Verse 5; RV5.70]
度一切障難 圓滿無垢根
具淨命相應 願彼自在事
Overcoming all obstacles and hardships,
Roundly and fully, being free of the roots of defilement,
May they be endowed accordingly with a pure livelihood.
I wish for them the matter of freedom.

[Verse 6; RV5.71]
一切具無邊 與寶手相應
窮後際無盡 願眾生如此
Possessed of all necessities, without limit,
Together with the valuable hands to use those goods –
Endlessly into the future,
I wish that living beings might be like this.

[Verse 7; RV5.72]
願一切女人 皆成勝丈夫
恒於一切時 明足得圓滿
May all women
Become in every case excellent human beings,
And constantly, at every moment,
Roundly and fully possess the legs of clarity.

Legs (足) sometimes represents the twofold practice of merit (summarizing the first five of the six pāramitās) and wisdom (the sixth).

[Verse 8; RV5.73]
勝形貌威德 好色他愛見
無病力辦具 長壽願彼然
An excellent physique, and dignity,
An agreeable complexion, that others love to see,
Freedom from disease, strength, resourcefulness,
And long life – I wish these things for others.

[Verse 9; RV5.74]
解脫諸苦畏 一向歸三寶
於方便善巧 佛法為大財
Liberated from all kinds of suffering and fear,
Devoted in one direction to the triple gem,
Skilled in the use of expedient means,
May they see the buddha-dharma as the great treasure.

[Verse 10; RV5.75]
慈悲喜淨捨 恒居四梵住
施戒忍精進 定智所莊嚴
With benevolence, compassion, joy, purity, and detachment,
May they constantly dwell in the four abodes of brahma, or spiritual development.
May they be adorned by free giving, ethical conduct, forbearance, perseverance, balance and wisdom.

[Verse 11; RV5.76]
圓滿福慧行 相好光明照
願彼難思量 行十地無礙
Replete with the practice of merit and wisdom,
Shining with the light of auspicious signs,
May they move without hindrance
Through the ten unfathomable stages.

[Verse 12; RV5.77]
與此德相應 餘德所莊嚴
解脫一切過 願我愛眾生
In accordance with this merit,
Adorned with other merits,
And liberated from all faults,
May I have love for living beings.

[Verse 13; RV5.78]
圓滿一切善 及眾生所樂
能除他眾苦 願我恒如此
May I fully realize all kinds of good,
Along with what living beings rejoice in.
Constantly being like this,
May I be able to relieve the suffering [of other beings]... 

.. sarva-dehinām ||RV5.78||
… of all embodied beings. //

[Verse 14]
ye ca ke cid bhayodvignāḥ sarva-lokeṣu jantavaḥ |
atyanta-nirbhayās te syur man-nāma-śravaṇād api ||RV5.79||
May beings in every world who are trembling with fear, / Be completely free of fear, even on hearing my name.//

[Verse 15]
kupitāḥ prasannāḥ svasthā darśanāt sparśanāc ca me |
nāma-śra[vaṇa-mātreṇa saṃbodhi]niyatā janāḥ ||RV5.80||
May people who have been provoked be soothed, well in themselves, on seeing and touching me. / Merely on hearing my name, may they be assured of full awakening.//

[Verse 16]
abhijāḥ prāpnuyāt pañca sarva-janmānugāmīḥ |
sarvaśaḥ sarva-sattvānāṃ kuryād dhita-sukhe sadā ||RV5.81||
May [each] attain five powers of knowing that follow them in every birth. / May [each] always in every way contribute to the contentment of every living being. //

[Verse 17]
ye pāpāni cikīrṣanti sarva-lokeṣu vartataḥ |
vārayeya[ṃ nirābādhaṃ] tān sarvān yugapat sadā ||RV5.82||
Those in all the worlds who, in earning a living, are about to commit wrongs, / May I always prevent them, all together, in such a way that no harm is done.//

[Verse 18]
pṛthivī-toya-vāyv-agni-bhaiṣajyāraṇya-vṛkṣa-vat |
svaireṇāvṛta-bhogyaḥ syāṃ sarva-prāṇa-bhṛtāṃ sadā ||RV5.83||
Like the earth, water, wind, fire, herbs, and the trees of the forest, / May I always be of unobstructed benefit, at their behest, to all beings that bear breath. //

[Verse 19]
prāṇa-priyaḥ syāṃ sattvānāṃ [te mat-priyatarāś ca me |
teṣāṃ pāpaṃ ma]yi pacye[n] mac-chubhaṃ teṣu cākhilam ||RV5.84||
May I be as dear as life-breath to living beings and may they be dearer still to me. / May their wrongdoing cause me, and my goodness cause them, to develop – there being no gap.//

[Verse 20]
yāvac caiko ’py amuktaḥ syāt sattvaḥ kaś cid iha kva cid |
tāvat tad-arthaṃ tiṣṭheyaṃ bodhiṃ prāpyāpy anuttarām ||RV5.85||
As long as any living being – even one single one – anywhere in this world is not yet liberated,/ May I remain here for that being, even after attaining the supreme awakening.”//

yad evaṃ vadataḥ puṇyaṃ yadi tan mūrtimad bhavet |
gaṅgāyāḥ sikatākhyeṣu na māyāl loka-dhātuṣu ||RV5.86||
If the merit of speaking in this way had material substance, / It would not fit into realms as numerous as grains of sand in the Ganges. //

uktam etad bhagavatā hetur apy atra dṛśyate |
sattva-dhātor ameyasya hitā saṃjñeyam īdṛśī ||RV5.87||
This was said by the Glorious One and the reasoning behind it is evident:/ The extending of benefit to the immeasurable realm of living beings is understood to be similarly immeasurable. //

iti dharmaḥ samākhyātaḥ saṃkṣepaāt tava yo mayā |
priyaḥ sa te stu satataṃ yathātmā satataṃ priyaḥ ||RV5.88||
Dharma has thus been related to you in brief by me. / Let it be ever dear to you, as your own self is ever dear. //

priyaś ca yasya dharmaḥ syāt tasyaivātmā priyo ’rthataḥ |
priyasya hi hitaṃ kāryaṃ dharmād bhavati tat-kṛte ||RV5.89||
One who holds the dharma dear does hold dear, in practice, his very self. / For on account of that devotion, through dharma, extending of benefit becomes practicable. //

bhajātmavad ato dharmaṃ pratipatti[ṃ ca] dharmavat |
pratipattim iva prajñāṃ prajñām iva ca paṇḍitān ||RV5.90||
And so honour dharma as yourself and honour a practical undertaking as dharma./ Honour wisdom as a practical undertaking and honour wise teachers as wisdom itself.//

śuci-snigdhaṃ buddhimantaṃ nigṛhya-hita-vādinam |
śaṅketa yaḥ sva-daurātmyāt sa sva-kāyaṃ vināśayet ||RV5.91||
[When the wise are] pure in friendship, endowed with understanding and, through exercise of self-restraint, full of benevolent speech,/ One who, out of his own small-mindedness, is distrustful, renders his own body useless. //

eṣāṃ kalyāṇa-mitrāṇāṃ viddhi saṃkṣepa-lakṣaṇam |
saṃtoṣaḥ karuṇā śīlaṃ prajñā ca [kleśa-śā]tanī ||RV5.92||
Know that these friends in the good are marked, in brief, by: / Contentment, compassion, moral integrity, and the wisdom that cuts out afflictive emotions.//

ebhis tavopadiṣṭavyaṃ jñātvā kāryaṃ tvayādarāt |
anayā naya-saṃpattyā parāṃ siddhim avāpsyasi ||RV5.93||
Know the work that they will teach you wholeheartedly to do, / And by this supreme plan of action you will attain realization. // 

satya-sattva-priyābhāṣī sukha-śīlo dur-āsadaḥ |
nītimān nikṛti-dveṣī svatantraḥ suvacā bhava ||RV5.94||
In speech be truthful, strong and loving; be easy in maintaining moral integrity, which is a difficult combination to meet;/ Be civil, hating abusive ways; be self-controlled and well-spoken.//

sudāntānuśayas tyāgī tejasvī śānta-mānasaḥ |
adīrgha-sūtro ’capalo niḥsādyo bhava dakṣiṇaḥ ||RV5.95||
Well-tamed, devoted, generous, energetic, of quieted mind,/ Be neither procrastinating nor impulsive, be unflagging, and be straightforward. //

bhava pūrṇendu-vat saumyas tejasvī śarad-arka-vat |
samudra iva gambhīraḥ sthira-dharmaḥ sumeru-vat ||RV5.96||
Be as mild as the full moon and as full of fiery energy as the autumn sun. / Be as deep as the ocean and as firm in nature as Mount Meru.//

sarva-doṣair vinirmukto guṇaiḥ sarvair alaṃkṛtaḥ |
sarva-sattvopajīvyaś ca bhava sarva-jña eva ca ||RV5.97||
Freed from every fault, adorned with every virtue; / Be the life-support of all beings. Be the All-Knowing One himself.//

na kevalam ayaṃ dharmo rājña evopadiśyate |
anyebhyo ’pi yathāyogaṃ sattvebhyo hita-kāmyayā ||RV5.98||
Not only for a king has this dharma been taught, / But with the wish also to benefit, according to circumstance, other living beings.//

imāṃ parikathāṃ rājan pratyahaṃ śrotum arhasi |
ātmanaś ca pareṣāṃ ca saṃyak-saṃbodhi-siddhaye ||RV5.99||
To this counsel, O King, please attend day by day, / So that self and others may realize saṃyak-saṃbodhi, complete integral awakening. //

śīlaṃ gauravam uttamaṃ guru-jane kṣāntiṃ tathānīrṣyatāṃ
mātsaryāpagamaṃ parārtha-dhanitāṃ kṛtvā ni[rākāṅkṣayā] |
能行善惡人 攝持及制伏
弘護佛正法 求菩提應行
[Attend to] ethical conduct, deepest respect for teachers, forbearance, likewise non-jealousy, letting go of stinginess, being endowed with the wealth of altruism, and acting without expectation of gain;/
Being able to deal with people both good or bad,
Supporting [the former] and restraining [the latter];
Broadly safeguarding the Buddha's true dharma;
And pursuing conduct that accords with a buddha's enlightenment. //

True Advice to a King of Jewel-Conduct – Chapter 5, The True Conduct of a Home-Leaver.

Ratnāvalī, Chapter Four

a-dharmam a-nyāyyam api prāyo rājānujīvibhiḥ |
ācaran stūyate tasmāt kṛcchrād vetti kṣamākṣamam ||RV4.1||
Even a king who goes against dharma and against normal standards is mostly praised by his subjects;/ Hence it is hard for him to know what is and is not appropriate.//

anyo ’pi tāvad yaḥ kaś cid dur-vacaḥ kṣamam apriyam |
kim u rājā mahā-bhaumas tvaṃ mayā bhikṣuṇā satā ||RV4.2||
What is fitting but disagreeable is already hard to tell another, even in a different case. / How much harder is to for me, being a mendicant, to tell you, the king of a great territory? //

tvat-kṛtād eva tu snehāj jagatām anukampayā |
aham eko vadāmi tvāṃ pathyam apy apriyaṃ bhṛśam ||RV4.3||
But because of the fondness that you have caused, and with compassion for humankind,/ I am telling you, singly and without hesitation, what is salutary but unpleasant.//

satyaṃ ślakṣṇārthavat pathyaṃ śiṣyaḥ kāle ’nukampayā |
vācya ity āha bhagavāṃs tad evam abhidhīyase ||RV4.4||
The student is, with compassion – gently, meaningfully, beneficially and at the proper time – to be told the truth. / So said the Glorious One. Therefore you are being addressed in this way.//

akrodhe satya-vākye ca śrāvyamāṇo yadi sthitaḥ |
śravyaṃ samparigṛhṇīyāt sat-toyaṃ snāpyamāna-vat ||RV4.5||
If one stands firm when being asked to listen to words which are truthful and spoken not in anger, / One may take in what is worth listening to, like being invited to bathe and accepting clean water. //

tasya me vadato vākyaṃ tvam ihāmutra ca kṣamam |
jñātvā kuru hitāyedam ātmano jagato ’pi ca ||RV4.6||
Understand that the advice I am giving you is fitting, here and now and hereafter, / And act on it for the benefit of both yourself and the world.//

yācakebhyaḥ purā dānāt prāpyārthāṃś cen na dāsyasi |
akṛtajñatva-lobhābhyāṃ nārthān punar avāpsyasi ||RV4.7||
Having obtained riches through former giving to beggars, / If through ingratitude and avarice you stop giving, you will not obtain riches again.//

iha pathyadanaṃ loke na vahaty abhṛto bhṛtaḥ |
yācakas tv abhṛto ’mutra hīnaḥ śata-guṇad vahaḥ ||RV4.8||
Here in this world a hired porter, when not paid, does not carry provisions for the way, / But a humble beggar, without payment, carries yonder what is worth a hundred times more. //

udāra-cittaḥ satataṃ bhavodāra-kriyārataḥ |
udāra-karmaṇaḥ sarvam udāraṃ jāyate phalam ||RV4.9||
Always be uplifted in your mind and take delight in an ascendant act of generosity. / From ascendant karma every ascendant effect is born. //

mano-rathair api klībair anālīḍhaṃ narādhipaiḥ |
kuru dharmāspadaṃ śrīmat khyātaṃ ratna-trayāspadam ||RV4.10||
Lay a foundation whose surface has never been scratched, even in a passing fancy, by rulers of men who lack initiative./ Build a base for dharma, a shining and famous seat for the three jewels. //

sāmanta-rāja-romāñca-karaṃ dharmāspadaṃ na yat |
mṛtyasyāpy apraśasyatvād rājaṃs tad akṛtaṃ varam ||RV4.11||
A seat of dharma that does not make the hair of neighbouring kings stand on end,/ Is not worthy of admiration, even after the builder has died; and so, O King, it would be better not to build one.//

atyaudāryād udārāṇāṃ vismayotsāha-vardhaṇam |
utsāha-ghnaṃ ca mandānāṃ sarva-svenāpi kāraya ||RV4.12||
Through your lavish generosity, let the unconceited firmness of the uplifted grow; / And let the firm obduracy of languishers end – see to this, even at the cost of everything you own. //

utsṛjyāmutra gantavyaṃ sarva-svam avaśena te |
dharme niyuktaṃ yāty eva purastāt sarvam eva te ||RV4.13||
Having let go of everything you own, willingly or not, you will pass yonder; / Everything you have devoted to dharma goes before you. //

sarva-svaṃ pūrva-nṛpater nṛpasya vaśam āgatam |
kiṃ pūrvakasya dharmāya sukhāya yaśase ’pi vā ||RV4.14||
Everything that a previous ruler owned has come under a ruler's control./ Of what use is it to the former ruler, for his dharma, for his pleasure, or for his fame? //

bhuktād arthād iha sukhaṃ dattāt pāratrikaṃ sukham |
abhuktādatta-naṣṭatvād duḥkham eva kutaḥ sukham ||RV4.15||
From utilization of wealth, there is happiness here and now. From giving it away there is happiness hereafter. / From losing it, without having used it or given it away, there is only sorrow. Where is the happiness in that? //

vinaśyan sacivair dātum asvātantryān na śakyasi |
āyaticcheda-niḥsnehair nava-rāja-priyaiṣibhiḥ ||RV4.16||
While dying, powerless to exercise your own free-will, you will be unable to give by way of your ministers; / With the cutting of your life expectancy, their attachment to you will wane, as they seek to please the new king.//

sarva-svenāpy ataḥ svasthaḥ śīghraṃ dharmāspadaṃ kuru |
mṛtyu-pratyayam adhyasthaḥ pravāta-stha-pradīpa-vat ||RV4.17||
Even with everything you own, therefore, being in good health quickly build a foundation for dharma, / While standing on the grounds of death, like a lamp standing where the wind blows.//

dharmādhikārā ye cānye pūrva-rāja-pravartitāḥ |
devadroṇyādayas te ’pi pravartyantāṃ yathā sthitāḥ ||RV4.18||
Other dharma-prerogatives set rolling by previous kings, / Such as those involving processions of idols, should be allowed to carry on as they have been established. //

ahiṃsakaiḥ śubhācārair vrata-sthair atithipriyaiḥ |
sarva-kṣamair akalahair bhajyeraṃs taiḥ sadodyataiḥ ||RV4.19||
Let them be enjoyed by those who are pure in their practices, not harmful, who keep vows and are friendly to visitors;/ Who are tolerant to all, not quarrelsome, and always sincere. //

andha-vyādhita-hīnāṅga-dīnānātha-vanīpakāḥ |
te ’py anna-pānaṃ sāmyena labherann avighaṭṭitāḥ ||RV4.20||
Beggars who are blind, sick, lame, wretched, and vulnerable / Should also be able to obtain food and drink, in common with others, without harassment.//

anarthinām api satāṃ dhārmikāṇāṃ anugrahān |
apy anya-rājya-saṃsthānām anurūpān pravartaya ||RV4.21||
Extend favours to the good who practise in accordance with dharma, even if they do not ask for anything, / And extend favours along the same lines even to those residing in other kingdoms. //

sarva-dharmādhikāreṣu dharmādhikṛtam utthitam |
alubdhaṃ paṇḍitaṃ dharmyaṃ kuru teṣām abādhakam ||RV4.22||
At all jurisdictions where dharma is practised, appoint an eminent adminstrator / Who is wise, not greedy, who is just, and who will not be an impediment to those [practitioners].//

nīti-jñān dhārmikān snigdhāñ śucīn bhaktān akātarān |
kulināñ śīla-sampannān kṛtajñān sacivān kuru ||RV4.23||
Those who know good policy, who are observant of dharma, who are kindly, pure, loyal, undaunted; / Who are of a good lineage, possessed of moral integrity, and grateful – appoint these as ministers. //

akṣudrāṃs tyāginaḥ śūrān snigdhān sambhoginaḥ sthirān |
kuru nityāpramattāṃs ca dhārmikān daṇḍa-nāyakān ||RV4.24||
Those who are liberal, not petty, who are valiant and kindly, convivial and firm, / Who are never negligent, and who are observant of dharma – appoint these as leaders of the armed forces. //

dharma-śīlāñ śucīn dakṣān kārya-jñāñ śāstra-kovidān |
kṛta-vṛttīn samān snigdhān vṛddhān adhikṛtān kuru ||RV4.25||
Those who are steeped in dharma, pure, and able, who know what should be done, who are expert in the treatises, / Who are established in good conduct, impartial, kindly, and experienced – appoint these as administrators. //

prati-māsaṃ ca tebhyas tvaṃ sarvam āyavyayaṃ śṛṇu |
śrutvā dharmādhikārād yaṃ kāryaṃ sarvaṃ svayaṃ vada ||RV4.26||
And every month you should hear from them about all income and expenditure./ Having heard, tell them yourself everything that is to be done, on the basis of administration of dharma.//

dharmārthaṃ yadi te rājyaṃ na kīrtyarthaṃ na kāmataḥ |
tataḥ saphalam atyartham anarthārtham ato ’nyathā ||RV4.27||
If your kingdom is governed for dharma's sake, not for fame, or out of ambition, / Then it will be exceedingly fruitful; otherwise it will all be for nothing.//

parasparāmiṣī-bhūte loke ’smin prāyaśo nṛpa |
yathā rājyaṃ ca dharmaś ca bhavet tava tathā śṛṇu ||RV4.28||
In this world where, for the most part, O Leader of Men, people are as if each other's prey,/ Listen to how, for you, both sovereignty and dharma might be. //

jñāna-vṛddhāḥ kule jātā nyāya-jñāḥ pāpa-bhīravaḥ |
sametā bahavo nityaṃ santu te kārya-darśinaḥ ||RV4.29||
Those who are knowing and experienced, of good lineage, familiar with guiding principles, who shrink from wrongdoing, / Who see what needs to be done – let there always be gathered around you many such as these.//

daṇḍa-bandha-prahārādīn kuryus te nyāyato ’pi cet |
kārunyārdraḥ sadā bhūtvā tvam anugrahavān bhava ||RV4.30||
Even if they rightfully employ the rod of justice, or imprisonment, or beatings and so on,/ You, being moistened with compassion, should always remain full of kindness.//

hitāyaiva tvayā cittam unnāmyaṃ sarva-dehinām |
kāruṇyāt satataṃ rājaṃs tīvra-pāpa-kṛtām api ||RV4.31||
With sheer benevolence, with a mind oriented upward, constantly [be kind], O King to all embodied beings,/ Out of compassion – even to those who have committed seriously wrong deeds.//

tīvra-pāpeṣu hiṃsreṣu kṛpā kāryā viśeṣataḥ |
ta eva hi kṛpā-pātram hatātmāno mahātmanām ||RV4.32||
Particular pity is to be shown towards those violent wrongdoers who delight in doing harm,/ For those very destroyers of their own mind are worthy vessels of the pity of men of developed mind. //

pratyahaṃ pañca-rātram vā baddhān kṣīṇān vimocaya |
śeṣān api yathāyogaṃ mā kāṃś cin naiva mocaya ||RV4.33||
Every day, or after five nights, release any prisoners who are growing weak, / And release the others too, when appropriate. Do not keep any with no prospect of release.//

yeṣv amokṣaṇa-cittaṃ te jāyate teṣv asaṃvaraḥ |
tasmād asaṃvarāt pāpam ajasram upacīyate ||RV4.34||
When you have the mind which wants others not to be released, there is in you non-forbearance./ Stemming from that failure of forbearance, bad [karma] is ceaselessly amassed. //

yāvac ca na vimucyeraṃs tāvat syuḥ sukha-bandhanāḥ |
nāpita-snāna-pānānna-bhaiṣajya-vasanānvitāḥ ||RV4.35||
Until they are released, let [prisoners] be confined in comfort,/ With barbers, baths, food and drink, medicines and clothing. //

apātreṣv iva putreṣu pātrī-karaṇa-kāṅkṣayā |
kāruṇyāc chāsanaṃ kāryaṃ na dveṣān nārtha-lipsayā ||RV4.36||
As in the case of delinquent children who it is hoped will turn into worthy citizens, / Correction is to be administered out of compassion, not out of hatred, and not in pursuit of utility. //

vimṛśya saṃyag vijñāya praduṣṭān ghātakān api |
ahatvāpīḍayitvā ca kuru nirviṣayān narān ||RV4.37||
After investigating and understanding well the wicked and the murderous, / Without killing or torturing, make exiles of them. //

sva-tantraḥ paśya sarvaṃ ca viṣayaṃ cāra-cakṣuṣā |
nityāpramattaḥ smṛtimān kuru kāryaṃ ca dhārmikam ||RV4.38||
Pulling the strings independently, keep watch over the whole realm, through the eyes of your spies, / And being mindful, never heedless, do what needs to be done in accordance with dharma.//

pradāna-māna-satkārair guṇa-sthān satataṃ bhaja |
udārair anurūpais tu śeṣān api yathāvidhi ||RV4.39||
Always give pillars of good their due, with gifts, honours and favours / Which are exalted and fitting. But to the rest too, [give recognition] according to their merits. //

saṃmāna-sphīta-kusumaḥ sampradāna-mahā-phalaḥ |
rāja-vṛkṣaḥ kṣamā-cchāyaḥ sevyate bhṛtya-prakṣibhiḥ ||RV4.40||
Its abundant blossoms being shows of respect, its great fruits being largesse, / The royal tree whose shade is forbearance is cherished by the birds which are its dependents. //

tyāga-śīla-mayo rājā tejasvī bhavati priyaḥ |
śarkarā-modako yadvad elā-marica-karkaśaḥ ||RV4.41||
Beloved is a tough king made from free giving and ethical conduct – / Like a sweet with a hard coating of cardamom and pepper. //

mātsya-nyāyaś ca te naivaṃ nyāyād rājyaṃ bhaviṣyati |
na cānyāyo na vādharmo dharmaś caivaṃ bhaviṣyati ||RV4.42||
Again, if you never have any fishy model at all, your kingship will be based on principle / And will not be unprincipled. Nor will it be against dharma. Rather, it will be dharma itself. //

para-lokāt tvayā rājyaṃ nānītaṃ nāpi neṣyasi |
dharmāt prāptam ato ’syārthe nādharmaṃ kartum arhasi ||RV4.43||
Royal sovereignty was not brought by you from another world, nor will you take it with you. / Since it was gained through dharma, in sovereignty's own interest, you should not go against dharma.//

rājyena bhāṇḍa-mūlyena duḥkha-bhāṇḍa-paraṃparām |
rājan yathā nārjayasi prayatnaḥ kriyatāṃ tathā ||RV4.44||
Please exert yourself, O King, so as not to obtain, using the kingdom as collateral, long lines of the merchandise of suffering. //

rājyena bhāṇḍa-mūlyena rājya-bhāṇḍa-paraṃparām |
rājan yathā nirviśasi prayatnaḥ kriyatāṃ tathā ||RV4.45||
Please exert yourself, O King, so as to establish, using the kingdom as collateral, long lines of vessels for containing royal sovereignty. //

catur-dvīpām api prāpya pṛthivīṃ cakra-vartinaḥ |
śārīraṃ mānasaṃ caiva sukha-dvayam idaṃ matam ||RV4.46||
Even for a wheel-rolling king who has taken possession of the earth with its four continents,/ Pleasure is understood to be of these two kinds: physical and mental. //

duḥkha-pratikriyā-mātraṃ śārīraṃ vedanā-sukham |
saṃjñā-mayaṃ mānasaṃ tu kevalaṃ kalpanā-kṛtam ||RV4.47||
The physical feeling of pleasure is only respite from pain, / While what is of the mind is made from consciousness, produced purely from the imagination.//

duḥkha-pratikriyā-mātraṃ kalpanā-mātram eva ca |
lokasya sukha-sarva-svaṃ vy-artham etad ato ’rthataḥ ||RV4.48||
Mere respite from suffering, and nothing but a fabrication,/ Is the whole sum of pleasure in this world. In practice, therefore, it is meaningless. //

dvīpa-deśa-purā-vāsa-pradeśāsana-vāsasām |
śayyānna-pāna-hasty-aśva-strīṇāṃ caikaika-bhogyatā ||RV4.49||
Continents, countries, towns, homes, locations, seats, and clothing; / As also beds, meals, drinks, elephants, horses, and women, can only be enjoyed one by one.//

yadā ca yatra cittaṃ syāt tadā tena sukhaṃ kila |
śeṣāṇām amanas-kārāt teṣāṃ vyarthatvam arthataḥ ||RV4.50||
At whatever time and place the mind may be, pleasure is reported then and there./ All the rest, because the mind is not directed on them, are in practice irrelevance itself. // 

viṣayān pañcabhiḥ pañca cakṣur-ādibhir indriyaiḥ |
na kalpayati yad gṛhṇan nāsmāt teṣu tadā sukham ||RV4.51||
When with the eye and the rest of the five senses one is not imagining but perceiving the five sense-objects, / At that moment, on those grounds, there is nothing pleasing about them. //

jānīte viṣayaṃ yaṃ yaṃ yena yenendriyeṇa ca |
tadā na śeṣaiḥ śeṣāṇi vyarthāny eva yatas tadā ||RV4.52||
When a particular sense-object is known by its corresponding sense, again, / At that time the other objects are not being known by the other senses, in which case, in that moment, they are quite irrelevant.//

indriyair upalabdhasya viṣayasyākṛtiṃ manaḥ |
upalabhya vyatītasya kalpayan manyate sukham ||RV4.53||
Having apprehended, via the senses, the impression of the apprehended object, / Whose time has passed, the imagining mind fancies pleasure.//

ekam arthaṃ vijānāti yady apy ekam ihendriyam |
tad apy arthaṃ vinā vyarthaṃ vyartho ’rtho ’pi ca tad vinā ||RV4.54||
If, again, one sense here and now recognizes one object, / Then the sense is irrelevant without that object, and the object also is irrelevant without that sense. //

pratītya mātā-pitarau yathoktaḥ putra-sambhavaḥ |
cakṣū-rūpe pratītyaivam ukto vijñāna-saṃbhavah ||RV4.55||
Just as the coming-into-being of a child is said to be dependent on both mother and father, / So the coming-into-being of [visual] cognition is said to be dependent on both eye and visual form.//

atītānāgatā vyarthā viṣayāḥ sārdham indriyaiḥ |
tad-dvayānatirikta-tvād vyarthā ye ’pi ca sāmpratāḥ ||RV4.56||
Past and future sense-objects, along with their corresponding senses, are irrelevant, / As also are present ones irrelevant, insofar as they are not divorced from that duality. //

alāta-cakraṃ gṛhṇāti yathā cakṣur viparyayāt |
tathendriyāṇi gṛhṇanti viṣayān sāṃpratān iva ||RV4.57||
Just as the eye mistakenly perceives the wheel of a firebrand, / So do the senses perceive objects as belonging to the present. // 

indriyāṇīndriyārthāś ca pañca-bhūta-mayā matāḥ |
pratisvaṃ bhūta-vaiyarthyād eṣāṃ vyartha-tvam arthataḥ ||RV4.58||
Senses and sense-objects are understood to be composed of the five elements./ The irrelevance of these [senses and objects] rests, in practice, on the meaninglessness of the elements, each as an ingredient in itself. // 

nir-indhano ’gnir bhūtānāṃ vinirbhāge prasajyate |
saṃparke lakṣaṇābhāvaḥ śeṣeṣv apy eṣa nirṇayaḥ ||RV4.59||
In piecemeal existence of the elements, there follows fire without fuel. / In their conflating, there is the non-existence of any defining mark [of either fire or fuel]. This inference applies to all other [combinations] too. //

evaṃ dvi-dhāpi bhūtānāṃ vyarthatvāt saṅgatir vṛthā |
vyarthatvāt saṅgateś caivaṃ rūpaṃ vyartham ato ’rthataḥ ||RV4.60||
Thus, either way, because of the irrelevance of the elements, their combination is meaningless./ And thus, because of the irrelevance of the combination, a material form is irrelvant, in practice. //

vijñāna-vedanā-saṃjñā-saṃskārāṇām ca sarvaśaḥ |
pratyekam ātma-vaiyarthyād vaiyarthyaṃ paramārthataḥ ||RV4.61||
Because of the inherent irrelevance – altogether or one by one – of cognition, feeling, perception and doings, there is, ultimately, the Irrelevant. //

sukhābhimāno duḥkhasya pratīkāre yathārthataḥ |
tathā duhkhābhimāno ’pi sukhasya pratighāta-jaḥ ||RV4.62||
Just as there is fancied to be pleasure in what, in fact, is respite from pain, / So also is what is born from the obstruction of pleasure fancied to be pain. //

sukhe saṃyoga-tṛṣṇaivaṃ naiḥsvābhāvyāt prahīyate |
duḥkhe viyoga-tṛṣṇā ca paśyatāṃ muktir ity ataḥ ||RV4.63||
This being so, thirst for contact with pleasure is, on the grounds of nothing existing as a thing-unto-itself, abandoned, / As also is thirst for separation from pain. By these means, for the ones that see, there is liberation. //

kaḥ paśyatīti cec cittaṃ vyavahāreṇa kathyate |
na hi caittaṃ vinā cittaṃ vyarthatvān na saheṣyate ||RV4.64||
If [you ask] “What sees?”, conventionally the mind is cited, / For without a mind there is nothing mental. Because of the irrelevance [of mind and visual object singly], it is not asserted that they are simultaneous.//

vyartham evaṃ jagan matvā yāthābhūtyān nirāspadaḥ |
nirvāti nirupādāno nirupādāna-vahnivat ||RV4.65||
Thus deeming the meaningless world of men, on the grounds of how it really is, to be without any firm foundation, / Then, through with clinging, one is blown out like a fire that is through with taking hold.//

bodhisattvo ’pi dṛṣṭvaivaṃ sambodhau niyato mataḥ |
kevalaṃ tv asya kāruṇyād ā bodher bhava-saṃtatiḥ ||RV4.66||
The bodhisattva also, seeing in this way, is understood to be committed to the integral awakening of sambodhi, / But because of compassion, until this awakening, there is for him only continued becoming. //

bodhisattvasya saṃbhāro mahāyāne tathāgataiḥ |
nirdiṣṭaḥ sa tu saṃmūḍhaiḥ pradviṣṭaiś caiva nindyate ||RV4.67||
In the great vehicle a bodhisattva's necessary equipment is indicated by the tathāgatas,/ But it is traduced by men of ignorance and hatred. //

The twofold necessary equipment (saṃbhāra) is puṇya-sambhāra, acts of merit; and prajñā-sambhāra, wisdom.

guṇa-doṣānabhijño vā doṣa-saṃjñī guṇeṣu vā |
atha vāpi guṇa-dveṣī mahāyānasya nindakaḥ ||RV4.68||
One who is not conversant with merits and faults; or who, when among acts of merit, recognizes faults;/ Or else is a hater of merit: he is one who traduces the great vehicle. //

paropaghātino doṣān parānugrahiṇo guṇān |
jñātvocyate guṇa-dveṣī mahāyānasya nindakaḥ ||RV4.69||
Faults are injurious to others, acts of merit are beneficial to others: / He who knows this and yet is a hater of merit, is called a traducer of the great vehicle. //

yat svārtha-nirapekṣa-tvāt parārthaika-rasa-priyam |
guṇākaraṃ mahāyānaṃ tad dveṣī tena dahyate ||RV4.70||
The great vehicle is devotion, of a single taste, to the interests of others, having overlooked one's own self-interest: / He who hates that mine of merit is thereby consumed by the fires of his own suffering. //

śrāddho ’pi dur-gṛhītena dviṣyāt kruddho atha vetaraḥ |
śrāddho ’pi dagdha ity uktaḥ kā cintā dveṣa-bandhure ||RV4.71||
On the one hand, even a believer, due to a misapprehension, might be hostile; and so, on the other hand, might the man of anger./ Even a believer is said to be burned up [by hating]. What to think about the man bent on hatred? //

viṣeṇāpi viṣaṃ hanyād yathaivoktaṃ cikitsakaiḥ |
duḥkhenāpy ahitaṃ hanyād ity ukte kiṃ virudhyate ||RV4.72||
Just as a poison can be removed by another poison, as is said by healers, / What contradiction is there in saying that harm must be averted even if suffering is involved? //

manaḥ-pūrvaṃ-gamā dharmā manaḥ-śreṣṭhā iti śruteḥ |
hitaṃ hita-manāḥ kurvan duḥkenāpy ahitaṃ katham ||RV4.73||
According to tradition, “Dharmas have mind as their forerunner and mind is the foremost among dharmas,” / When one of benevolent mind does what is beneficial, even if it involves suffering, what harm can there be? //

duḥkham apy āyatī-pathyaṃ kāryaṃ kim u sukhaṃ hitam |
ātmanaś ca pareṣāṃ ca dharma eṣa sanātanaḥ ||RV4.74||
Even if it is painful – and how much more if it is pleasant and beneficial – / Whatever will extend well-being to self and others is to be done. This dharma is eternal. //

mātrā-sukha-parityāgāt paścāc ced vipulaṃ sukham |
tyajen mātrā-sukhaṃ dhīraḥ saṃpaśyan vipulaṃ sukham ||RV4.75||
If through abandoning small pleasures there is great happiness later,/ A steadfast soul should give up a small pleasure, with a view to great happiness.//

na mṛṣyate ca yady etat kaṭu-bhaiṣajya-dāyinaḥ |
tataś cikitsakādyāś ca hatā naivaṃ ca yujyate ||RV4.76||
If this were not acceptable, then people such as doctors dispensing bitter medicine / Would be rendered obsolete. But [to avoid suffering] in this way is not workable. //

apathyam api yad dṛṣṭaṃ tat pathyaṃ paṇḍitaiḥ kva cit |
utsargaś cāpavādaś ca sarva-śāstreṣu śasyate ||RV4.77||
Even what is [generally] unwholesome is seen by experts in certain cases to be salutary. / The general rule and the exception are praised in every field of teaching. //

karuṇā-pūrvakāḥ sarve niṣyandā jñāna-nirmalāḥ |
uktā yatra mahāyāne kas tan nindet sa-cetanaḥ ||RV4.78||
When in the great vehicle all necessary consequences are said to have compassion preceding them and wisdom leaving them untainted, / What person possessed of consciousness would slander that [vehicle]? //

atyaudāryātigāmbhīryād viṣaṇṇair akṛtātmabhiḥ |
nindyate ’dya mahāyānaṃ mohāt sva-para-vairibhiḥ ||RV4.79||
Because of its overarching transcendence and its exceeding profundity, the great vehicle nowadays is maligned by the moribund, who are not in possession of themselves – / Through ignorance, they are enemies to themselves and others. //

dāna-śīla-kṣamā-vīrya-dhyāna-prajñā-kṛpātmakam |
mahāyāna-mataṃ tasmin kasmād dur-bhāṣitaṃ vacaḥ ||RV4.80||
The vehicle whose compassionate essence is giving, ethical conduct, forbearance, perseverance, meditation, and wisdom, / Is esteemed as the great vehicle. How could there be in it any misspoken word? // 

parārtho dāna-śīlābhyāṃ kṣāntyā vīryeṇa cātmanaḥ |
dhyānaṃ prajñā ca mokṣāya mahāyānārtha-saṃgrahaḥ ||RV4.81||
Others' interests are served by giving and ethical conduct, one's own by forbearance and by perseverance, / While meditation and wisdom are directed towards liberation. [This is] a summary of the whole purpose of the great vehicle.//

parā[tma-hita-]mokṣārthāḥ saṃkṣepād buddha-śāsanam |
te ṣaṭ-pāramitā-garbhās tasmād bauddham idaṃ vacaḥ ||RV4.82||
The aims of benefiting and liberating others and self are, in brief, what the Buddha taught./ Those aims are contained in the six perfections. Therefore this is the word of Buddha.//

puṇya-jñāna-mayo yatra buddhair bodher mahā-pathaḥ |
deśitas tan mahāyānam ajñānāndhair na sahyate ||RV4.83||
The great vehicle, that means by which buddhas have pointed out enlightenment's broad path, made by good work and wisdom, is not tolerated by men who are blinded by ignorance. //

kham ivācintya-puṇya-tvād ukto ’cintya-guṇo jinaḥ |
mahāyāne yato buddha-māhātmyaṃ kṣamyatām idam ||RV4.84||
Because of acts of goodness as unfathomable as the sky, the Victorious One is said to have unthinkable merit. / On those grounds, in the great vehicle, is this magnanimity of the Buddha to be allowed. //

ārya-śāradvatasyāpi śīla-mātre ’py agocaraḥ |
yasmāt tad buddha-māhātmyam acintyaṃ kiṃ na mṛṣyate ||RV4.85||
Even within the field of ethical observance of precepts, he was beyond the range of the noble son of Śāradvatī. / On what grounds is that unthinkable magnanimity of Buddha not to be tolerated?//

Śāradvata here means Śariputra, also known as Śāradvatī-putra, lit. “son of [the mother] descended from Śarad-vat.” (Śarad-vat, “possessed of autumns,” means full of years, aged.)

anutpādo mahāyāne pareṣāṃ śūnyātā kṣayaḥ |
kṣayānutpādāyoś caikyam arthataḥ kṣamyatāṃ yataḥ ||RV4.86|
In the great vehicle, emptiness is [self-nature] never having arisen; for others, emptiness is an extinction./ In practice, extinction and non-arising are an identity; on which grounds, let it be. //

śūnyatā-buddha-māhātmyam evaṃ yuktyānupaśyatām |
mahāyānetaroktāni na sameyuḥ kathaṃ satām ||RV4.87||
Let emptiness and the magnanimity of the Buddha thus be viewed with reason. / How then can the great vehicle, and things described as different from it, for true people, not converge? //

tathāgatābhisaṃdhyoktāny asukhaṃ jñātum ity ataḥ |
ekayāna-triyānoktād ātmā rakṣya upekṣayā ||RV4.88||
The sayings taught, advisedly, by the Tathāgata, are not easy to understand, / Which being so, insofar as he spoke of one vehicle and three vehicles, the integrity of the self is to be protected, by means of impartiality.//

upekṣayā hi nāpuṇyam dveṣāt pāpaṃ kutaḥ śubham |
mahāyāne yato dveṣo nātma-kāmaiḥ kṛto ’rhati ||RV4.89||
For no harm is associated with impartiality ; [whereas] from hostility there is wrongdoing – and what good can come of that? / Therefore hostility towards the great vehicle should not be practised by those who desire [to possess] themselves. //

na bodhisattva-praṇidhir na caryā-pariṇāmanā |
uktāḥ śrāvaka-yāne ’smād bodhisattvaḥ kutas tataḥ ||RV4.90||
Neither what the bodhisatta wills, nor the redirection of the merit of practice, / Are mentioned in the vehicle of the śrāvaka, the voice-hearer. How, then, does a bodhisattva arise from that vehicle? //

adhiṣṭhānāni noktāni bodhisattvasya bodhaye |
buddhair anyat pramāṇaṃ ca ko ’sminn arthe jinādhikaḥ ||RV4.91||
Nor is mention made there, by the buddhas, of a bodhisattva's steadfast resolutions for awakening. / And as the criterion in this matter, who else is there above the victorious ones? //

adhiṣṭānārya-satyārtha-bodhi-pakṣopasaṃhitāt |
mārgāc chrāvaka-sāmānyād bauddhaṃ kenādhikaṃ phalam ||RV4.92||
How could there be a Buddhist fruit superior to the path – shared by [bodhisattvas and] śrāvakas alike – which connects the steadfast resolutions, the gist of the noble truths, and the things on the side of awakening? //

bodhi-caryā-pratiṣṭhārthaṃ na sūtre bhāṣitaṃ vacaḥ |
bhāṣitaṃ ca mahāyāne grāhyam asmād vicakṣaṇaiḥ ||RV4.93||
No word is spoken in a [śrāvaka's] sūtra of the purpose which is the foundation of a bodhisattva's practice, / But it is described in the great vehicle. Hence it is to embraced by the clear-sighted. //

yathaiva vaiyākaraṇo mātṛkām api pāṭhayet |
buddho ’vadat tathā dharmaṃ vineyānāṃ yathā-kṣamam ||RV4.94||
Just as a teacher of grammar might recite even the alphabet, / So the Buddha spoke dharma to trainees in accordance with their capacity.//

keṣāṃ cid avadad dharmaṃ pāpebhyo vinivṛttaye |
keṣāṃ cit puṇya-siddhy-arthaṃ keṣāṃ cid dvaya-niḥśritam ||RV4.95||
To some he spoke dharma so that they might turn back from wrongs; / To some [he spoke dharma] for the accomplishment of good; to some [he spoke dharma] based on dichotomies.//

dvayāniśritam ekeṣāṃ gambhīraṃ bhīru-bhīṣaṇam |
śūnyatā-karuṇā-garbham ekeṣāṃ bodhi-sādhanam ||RV4.96||
To certain individuals [he taught] a means not based on duality, profound, frightening to the fearful – / A means whose heart is emptiness and compassion. To those individuals [he taught] a means for the realization of a buddha's enlightenment. //

iti sadbhir mahāyāne kartavyaḥ pratigha-kṣayaḥ |
prasādaś cādhikaḥ kāryaḥ saṃyak-saṃbodhi-siddhaye ||RV4.97||
Thus is extinction of ill-will towards the great vehicle to be accomplished by true people./ And transcendent clarity is to be cultivated, in the direction of fulfilment of saṃyak-saṃbodhi, a buddha's complete integral enlightenment.//

mahāyāna-prasādena tad-uktācaraṇena ca |
prāpyate ’nuttarā bodhiḥ sarva-saukhyāni cāntarā ||RV4.98||
By clarity in regard to the great vehicle, and by the conduct described therein, / Supreme awakening is attained, along with every happiness on the way. //

dāna-śīla-kṣamā-satyaṃ gṛha-sthasya viśeṣataḥ |
dharma uktaḥ kṛpā-garbhaḥ sa sātmī-kriyatāṃ dṛḍham ||RV4.99||
For a lay person in particular, the truthfulness of giving, ethical conduct, and forbearance / Is said to be the dharma whose heart is compassion – let it be practised firmly, with your whole being. //

atha lokasya vaidharmyād rājyaṃ dharmeṇa duṣkaram |
tato dharma-yaśo-’rthaṃ te pravrajyādhigamaḥ kṣamaḥ ||RV4.100||
Or if, from the world's non-conduciveness to dharma, kingship is hard to practice according to dharma,/ Then for the sake of the glory of dharma, it is proper for you to go forth. //

ratnāvalyāṃ rāja-vṛttopadeśo nāma caturthaḥ paricchedaḥ ||
The end of the fourth chapter, titled Advice for the Conduct of a King, in A String of Gems.