Under the rose-apple tree

Under the rose-apple tree

Monday, 16 May 2016

Ratnāvalī, Chapter Four

a-dharmam a-nyāyyam api prāyo rājānujīvibhiḥ |
ācaran stūyate tasmāt kṛcchrād vetti kṣamākṣamam ||RV4.1||
Even a king who goes against dharma and against normal standards is mostly praised by his subjects;/ Hence it is hard for him to know what is and is not appropriate.//

anyo ’pi tāvad yaḥ kaś cid dur-vacaḥ kṣamam apriyam |
kim u rājā mahā-bhaumas tvaṃ mayā bhikṣuṇā satā ||RV4.2||
What is fitting but disagreeable is already hard to tell another, even in a different case. / How much harder is to for me, being a mendicant, to tell you, the king of a great territory? //

tvat-kṛtād eva tu snehāj jagatām anukampayā |
aham eko vadāmi tvāṃ pathyam apy apriyaṃ bhṛśam ||RV4.3||
But because of the fondness that you have caused, and with compassion for humankind,/ I am telling you, singly and without hesitation, what is salutary but unpleasant.//

satyaṃ ślakṣṇārthavat pathyaṃ śiṣyaḥ kāle ’nukampayā |
vācya ity āha bhagavāṃs tad evam abhidhīyase ||RV4.4||
The student is, with compassion – gently, meaningfully, beneficially and at the proper time – to be told the truth. / So said the Glorious One. Therefore you are being addressed in this way.//

akrodhe satya-vākye ca śrāvyamāṇo yadi sthitaḥ |
śravyaṃ samparigṛhṇīyāt sat-toyaṃ snāpyamāna-vat ||RV4.5||
If one stands firm when being asked to listen to words which are truthful and spoken not in anger, / One may take in what is worth listening to, like being invited to bathe and accepting clean water. //

tasya me vadato vākyaṃ tvam ihāmutra ca kṣamam |
jñātvā kuru hitāyedam ātmano jagato ’pi ca ||RV4.6||
Understand that the advice I am giving you is fitting, here and now and hereafter, / And act on it for the benefit of both yourself and the world.//

yācakebhyaḥ purā dānāt prāpyārthāṃś cen na dāsyasi |
akṛtajñatva-lobhābhyāṃ nārthān punar avāpsyasi ||RV4.7||
Having obtained riches through former giving to beggars, / If through ingratitude and avarice you stop giving, you will not obtain riches again.//

iha pathyadanaṃ loke na vahaty abhṛto bhṛtaḥ |
yācakas tv abhṛto ’mutra hīnaḥ śata-guṇad vahaḥ ||RV4.8||
Here in this world a hired porter, when not paid, does not carry provisions for the way, / But a humble beggar, without payment, carries yonder what is worth a hundred times more. //

udāra-cittaḥ satataṃ bhavodāra-kriyārataḥ |
udāra-karmaṇaḥ sarvam udāraṃ jāyate phalam ||RV4.9||
Always be uplifted in your mind and take delight in an ascendant act of generosity. / From ascendant karma every ascendant effect is born. //

mano-rathair api klībair anālīḍhaṃ narādhipaiḥ |
kuru dharmāspadaṃ śrīmat khyātaṃ ratna-trayāspadam ||RV4.10||
Lay a foundation whose surface has never been scratched, even in a passing fancy, by rulers of men who lack initiative./ Build a base for dharma, a shining and famous seat for the three jewels. //

sāmanta-rāja-romāñca-karaṃ dharmāspadaṃ na yat |
mṛtyasyāpy apraśasyatvād rājaṃs tad akṛtaṃ varam ||RV4.11||
A seat of dharma that does not make the hair of neighbouring kings stand on end,/ Is not worthy of admiration, even after the builder has died; and so, O King, it would be better not to build one.//

atyaudāryād udārāṇāṃ vismayotsāha-vardhaṇam |
utsāha-ghnaṃ ca mandānāṃ sarva-svenāpi kāraya ||RV4.12||
Through your lavish generosity, let the unconceited firmness of the uplifted grow; / And let the firm obduracy of languishers end – see to this, even at the cost of everything you own. //

utsṛjyāmutra gantavyaṃ sarva-svam avaśena te |
dharme niyuktaṃ yāty eva purastāt sarvam eva te ||RV4.13||
Having let go of everything you own, willingly or not, you will pass yonder; / Everything you have devoted to dharma goes before you. //

sarva-svaṃ pūrva-nṛpater nṛpasya vaśam āgatam |
kiṃ pūrvakasya dharmāya sukhāya yaśase ’pi vā ||RV4.14||
Everything that a previous ruler owned has come under a ruler's control./ Of what use is it to the former ruler, for his dharma, for his pleasure, or for his fame? //

bhuktād arthād iha sukhaṃ dattāt pāratrikaṃ sukham |
abhuktādatta-naṣṭatvād duḥkham eva kutaḥ sukham ||RV4.15||
From utilization of wealth, there is happiness here and now. From giving it away there is happiness hereafter. / From losing it, without having used it or given it away, there is only sorrow. Where is the happiness in that? //

vinaśyan sacivair dātum asvātantryān na śakyasi |
āyaticcheda-niḥsnehair nava-rāja-priyaiṣibhiḥ ||RV4.16||
While dying, powerless to exercise your own free-will, you will be unable to give by way of your ministers; / With the cutting of your life expectancy, their attachment to you will wane, as they seek to please the new king.//

sarva-svenāpy ataḥ svasthaḥ śīghraṃ dharmāspadaṃ kuru |
mṛtyu-pratyayam adhyasthaḥ pravāta-stha-pradīpa-vat ||RV4.17||
Even with everything you own, therefore, being in good health quickly build a foundation for dharma, / While standing on the grounds of death, like a lamp standing where the wind blows.//

dharmādhikārā ye cānye pūrva-rāja-pravartitāḥ |
devadroṇyādayas te ’pi pravartyantāṃ yathā sthitāḥ ||RV4.18||
Other dharma-prerogatives set rolling by previous kings, / Such as those involving processions of idols, should be allowed to carry on as they have been established. //

ahiṃsakaiḥ śubhācārair vrata-sthair atithipriyaiḥ |
sarva-kṣamair akalahair bhajyeraṃs taiḥ sadodyataiḥ ||RV4.19||
Let them be enjoyed by those who are pure in their practices, not harmful, who keep vows and are friendly to visitors;/ Who are tolerant to all, not quarrelsome, and always sincere. //

andha-vyādhita-hīnāṅga-dīnānātha-vanīpakāḥ |
te ’py anna-pānaṃ sāmyena labherann avighaṭṭitāḥ ||RV4.20||
Beggars who are blind, sick, lame, wretched, and vulnerable / Should also be able to obtain food and drink, in common with others, without harassment.//

anarthinām api satāṃ dhārmikāṇāṃ anugrahān |
apy anya-rājya-saṃsthānām anurūpān pravartaya ||RV4.21||
Extend favours to the good who practise in accordance with dharma, even if they do not ask for anything, / And extend favours along the same lines even to those residing in other kingdoms. //

sarva-dharmādhikāreṣu dharmādhikṛtam utthitam |
alubdhaṃ paṇḍitaṃ dharmyaṃ kuru teṣām abādhakam ||RV4.22||
At all jurisdictions where dharma is practised, appoint an eminent adminstrator / Who is wise, not greedy, who is just, and who will not be an impediment to those [practitioners].//

nīti-jñān dhārmikān snigdhāñ śucīn bhaktān akātarān |
kulināñ śīla-sampannān kṛtajñān sacivān kuru ||RV4.23||
Those who know good policy, who are observant of dharma, who are kindly, pure, loyal, undaunted; / Who are of a good lineage, possessed of moral integrity, and grateful – appoint these as ministers. //

akṣudrāṃs tyāginaḥ śūrān snigdhān sambhoginaḥ sthirān |
kuru nityāpramattāṃs ca dhārmikān daṇḍa-nāyakān ||RV4.24||
Those who are liberal, not petty, who are valiant and kindly, convivial and firm, / Who are never negligent, and who are observant of dharma – appoint these as leaders of the armed forces. //

dharma-śīlāñ śucīn dakṣān kārya-jñāñ śāstra-kovidān |
kṛta-vṛttīn samān snigdhān vṛddhān adhikṛtān kuru ||RV4.25||
Those who are steeped in dharma, pure, and able, who know what should be done, who are expert in the treatises, / Who are established in good conduct, impartial, kindly, and experienced – appoint these as administrators. //

prati-māsaṃ ca tebhyas tvaṃ sarvam āyavyayaṃ śṛṇu |
śrutvā dharmādhikārād yaṃ kāryaṃ sarvaṃ svayaṃ vada ||RV4.26||
And every month you should hear from them about all income and expenditure./ Having heard, tell them yourself everything that is to be done, on the basis of administration of dharma.//

dharmārthaṃ yadi te rājyaṃ na kīrtyarthaṃ na kāmataḥ |
tataḥ saphalam atyartham anarthārtham ato ’nyathā ||RV4.27||
If your kingdom is governed for dharma's sake, not for fame, or out of ambition, / Then it will be exceedingly fruitful; otherwise it will all be for nothing.//

parasparāmiṣī-bhūte loke ’smin prāyaśo nṛpa |
yathā rājyaṃ ca dharmaś ca bhavet tava tathā śṛṇu ||RV4.28||
In this world where, for the most part, O Leader of Men, people are as if each other's prey,/ Listen to how, for you, both sovereignty and dharma might be. //

jñāna-vṛddhāḥ kule jātā nyāya-jñāḥ pāpa-bhīravaḥ |
sametā bahavo nityaṃ santu te kārya-darśinaḥ ||RV4.29||
Those who are knowing and experienced, of good lineage, familiar with guiding principles, who shrink from wrongdoing, / Who see what needs to be done – let there always be gathered around you many such as these.//

daṇḍa-bandha-prahārādīn kuryus te nyāyato ’pi cet |
kārunyārdraḥ sadā bhūtvā tvam anugrahavān bhava ||RV4.30||
Even if they rightfully employ the rod of justice, or imprisonment, or beatings and so on,/ You, being moistened with compassion, should always remain full of kindness.//

hitāyaiva tvayā cittam unnāmyaṃ sarva-dehinām |
kāruṇyāt satataṃ rājaṃs tīvra-pāpa-kṛtām api ||RV4.31||
With sheer benevolence, with a mind oriented upward, constantly [be kind], O King to all embodied beings,/ Out of compassion – even to those who have committed seriously wrong deeds.//

tīvra-pāpeṣu hiṃsreṣu kṛpā kāryā viśeṣataḥ |
ta eva hi kṛpā-pātram hatātmāno mahātmanām ||RV4.32||
Particular pity is to be shown towards those violent wrongdoers who delight in doing harm,/ For those very destroyers of their own mind are worthy vessels of the pity of men of developed mind. //

pratyahaṃ pañca-rātram vā baddhān kṣīṇān vimocaya |
śeṣān api yathāyogaṃ mā kāṃś cin naiva mocaya ||RV4.33||
Every day, or after five nights, release any prisoners who are growing weak, / And release the others too, when appropriate. Do not keep any with no prospect of release.//

yeṣv amokṣaṇa-cittaṃ te jāyate teṣv asaṃvaraḥ |
tasmād asaṃvarāt pāpam ajasram upacīyate ||RV4.34||
When you have the mind which wants others not to be released, there is in you non-forbearance./ Stemming from that failure of forbearance, bad [karma] is ceaselessly amassed. //

yāvac ca na vimucyeraṃs tāvat syuḥ sukha-bandhanāḥ |
nāpita-snāna-pānānna-bhaiṣajya-vasanānvitāḥ ||RV4.35||
Until they are released, let [prisoners] be confined in comfort,/ With barbers, baths, food and drink, medicines and clothing. //

apātreṣv iva putreṣu pātrī-karaṇa-kāṅkṣayā |
kāruṇyāc chāsanaṃ kāryaṃ na dveṣān nārtha-lipsayā ||RV4.36||
As in the case of delinquent children who it is hoped will turn into worthy citizens, / Correction is to be administered out of compassion, not out of hatred, and not in pursuit of utility. //

vimṛśya saṃyag vijñāya praduṣṭān ghātakān api |
ahatvāpīḍayitvā ca kuru nirviṣayān narān ||RV4.37||
After investigating and understanding well the wicked and the murderous, / Without killing or torturing, make exiles of them. //

sva-tantraḥ paśya sarvaṃ ca viṣayaṃ cāra-cakṣuṣā |
nityāpramattaḥ smṛtimān kuru kāryaṃ ca dhārmikam ||RV4.38||
Pulling the strings independently, keep watch over the whole realm, through the eyes of your spies, / And being mindful, never heedless, do what needs to be done in accordance with dharma.//

pradāna-māna-satkārair guṇa-sthān satataṃ bhaja |
udārair anurūpais tu śeṣān api yathāvidhi ||RV4.39||
Always give pillars of good their due, with gifts, honours and favours / Which are exalted and fitting. But to the rest too, [give recognition] according to their merits. //

saṃmāna-sphīta-kusumaḥ sampradāna-mahā-phalaḥ |
rāja-vṛkṣaḥ kṣamā-cchāyaḥ sevyate bhṛtya-prakṣibhiḥ ||RV4.40||
Its abundant blossoms being shows of respect, its great fruits being largesse, / The royal tree whose shade is forbearance is cherished by the birds which are its dependents. //

tyāga-śīla-mayo rājā tejasvī bhavati priyaḥ |
śarkarā-modako yadvad elā-marica-karkaśaḥ ||RV4.41||
Beloved is a tough king made from free giving and ethical conduct – / Like a sweet with a hard coating of cardamom and pepper. //

mātsya-nyāyaś ca te naivaṃ nyāyād rājyaṃ bhaviṣyati |
na cānyāyo na vādharmo dharmaś caivaṃ bhaviṣyati ||RV4.42||
Again, if you never have any fishy model at all, your kingship will be based on principle / And will not be unprincipled. Nor will it be against dharma. Rather, it will be dharma itself. //

para-lokāt tvayā rājyaṃ nānītaṃ nāpi neṣyasi |
dharmāt prāptam ato ’syārthe nādharmaṃ kartum arhasi ||RV4.43||
Royal sovereignty was not brought by you from another world, nor will you take it with you. / Since it was gained through dharma, in sovereignty's own interest, you should not go against dharma.//

rājyena bhāṇḍa-mūlyena duḥkha-bhāṇḍa-paraṃparām |
rājan yathā nārjayasi prayatnaḥ kriyatāṃ tathā ||RV4.44||
Please exert yourself, O King, so as not to obtain, using the kingdom as collateral, long lines of the merchandise of suffering. //

rājyena bhāṇḍa-mūlyena rājya-bhāṇḍa-paraṃparām |
rājan yathā nirviśasi prayatnaḥ kriyatāṃ tathā ||RV4.45||
Please exert yourself, O King, so as to establish, using the kingdom as collateral, long lines of vessels for containing royal sovereignty. //

catur-dvīpām api prāpya pṛthivīṃ cakra-vartinaḥ |
śārīraṃ mānasaṃ caiva sukha-dvayam idaṃ matam ||RV4.46||
Even for a wheel-rolling king who has taken possession of the earth with its four continents,/ Pleasure is understood to be of these two kinds: physical and mental. //

duḥkha-pratikriyā-mātraṃ śārīraṃ vedanā-sukham |
saṃjñā-mayaṃ mānasaṃ tu kevalaṃ kalpanā-kṛtam ||RV4.47||
The physical feeling of pleasure is only respite from pain, / While what is of the mind is made from consciousness, produced purely from the imagination.//

duḥkha-pratikriyā-mātraṃ kalpanā-mātram eva ca |
lokasya sukha-sarva-svaṃ vy-artham etad ato ’rthataḥ ||RV4.48||
Mere respite from suffering, and nothing but a fabrication,/ Is the whole sum of pleasure in this world. In practice, therefore, it is meaningless. //

dvīpa-deśa-purā-vāsa-pradeśāsana-vāsasām |
śayyānna-pāna-hasty-aśva-strīṇāṃ caikaika-bhogyatā ||RV4.49||
Continents, countries, towns, homes, locations, seats, and clothing; / As also beds, meals, drinks, elephants, horses, and women, can only be enjoyed one by one.//

yadā ca yatra cittaṃ syāt tadā tena sukhaṃ kila |
śeṣāṇām amanas-kārāt teṣāṃ vyarthatvam arthataḥ ||RV4.50||
At whatever time and place the mind may be, pleasure is reported then and there./ All the rest, because the mind is not directed on them, are in practice irrelevance itself. // 

viṣayān pañcabhiḥ pañca cakṣur-ādibhir indriyaiḥ |
na kalpayati yad gṛhṇan nāsmāt teṣu tadā sukham ||RV4.51||
When with the eye and the rest of the five senses one is not imagining but perceiving the five sense-objects, / At that moment, on those grounds, there is nothing pleasing about them. //

jānīte viṣayaṃ yaṃ yaṃ yena yenendriyeṇa ca |
tadā na śeṣaiḥ śeṣāṇi vyarthāny eva yatas tadā ||RV4.52||
When a particular sense-object is known by its corresponding sense, again, / At that time the other objects are not being known by the other senses, in which case, in that moment, they are quite irrelevant.//

indriyair upalabdhasya viṣayasyākṛtiṃ manaḥ |
upalabhya vyatītasya kalpayan manyate sukham ||RV4.53||
Having apprehended, via the senses, the impression of the apprehended object, / Whose time has passed, the imagining mind fancies pleasure.//

ekam arthaṃ vijānāti yady apy ekam ihendriyam |
tad apy arthaṃ vinā vyarthaṃ vyartho ’rtho ’pi ca tad vinā ||RV4.54||
If, again, one sense here and now recognizes one object, / Then the sense is irrelevant without that object, and the object also is irrelevant without that sense. //

pratītya mātā-pitarau yathoktaḥ putra-sambhavaḥ |
cakṣū-rūpe pratītyaivam ukto vijñāna-saṃbhavah ||RV4.55||
Just as the coming-into-being of a child is said to be dependent on both mother and father, / So the coming-into-being of [visual] cognition is said to be dependent on both eye and visual form.//

atītānāgatā vyarthā viṣayāḥ sārdham indriyaiḥ |
tad-dvayānatirikta-tvād vyarthā ye ’pi ca sāmpratāḥ ||RV4.56||
Past and future sense-objects, along with their corresponding senses, are irrelevant, / As also are present ones irrelevant, insofar as they are not divorced from that duality. //

alāta-cakraṃ gṛhṇāti yathā cakṣur viparyayāt |
tathendriyāṇi gṛhṇanti viṣayān sāṃpratān iva ||RV4.57||
Just as the eye mistakenly perceives the wheel of a firebrand, / So do the senses perceive objects as belonging to the present. // 

indriyāṇīndriyārthāś ca pañca-bhūta-mayā matāḥ |
pratisvaṃ bhūta-vaiyarthyād eṣāṃ vyartha-tvam arthataḥ ||RV4.58||
Senses and sense-objects are understood to be composed of the five elements./ The irrelevance of these [senses and objects] rests, in practice, on the meaninglessness of the elements, each as an ingredient in itself. // 

nir-indhano ’gnir bhūtānāṃ vinirbhāge prasajyate |
saṃparke lakṣaṇābhāvaḥ śeṣeṣv apy eṣa nirṇayaḥ ||RV4.59||
In piecemeal existence of the elements, there follows fire without fuel. / In their conflating, there is the non-existence of any defining mark [of either fire or fuel]. This inference applies to all other [combinations] too. //

evaṃ dvi-dhāpi bhūtānāṃ vyarthatvāt saṅgatir vṛthā |
vyarthatvāt saṅgateś caivaṃ rūpaṃ vyartham ato ’rthataḥ ||RV4.60||
Thus, either way, because of the irrelevance of the elements, their combination is meaningless./ And thus, because of the irrelevance of the combination, a material form is irrelvant, in practice. //

vijñāna-vedanā-saṃjñā-saṃskārāṇām ca sarvaśaḥ |
pratyekam ātma-vaiyarthyād vaiyarthyaṃ paramārthataḥ ||RV4.61||
Because of the inherent irrelevance – altogether or one by one – of cognition, feeling, perception and doings, there is, ultimately, the Irrelevant. //

sukhābhimāno duḥkhasya pratīkāre yathārthataḥ |
tathā duhkhābhimāno ’pi sukhasya pratighāta-jaḥ ||RV4.62||
Just as there is fancied to be pleasure in what, in fact, is respite from pain, / So also is what is born from the obstruction of pleasure fancied to be pain. //

sukhe saṃyoga-tṛṣṇaivaṃ naiḥsvābhāvyāt prahīyate |
duḥkhe viyoga-tṛṣṇā ca paśyatāṃ muktir ity ataḥ ||RV4.63||
This being so, thirst for contact with pleasure is, on the grounds of nothing existing as a thing-unto-itself, abandoned, / As also is thirst for separation from pain. By these means, for the ones that see, there is liberation. //

kaḥ paśyatīti cec cittaṃ vyavahāreṇa kathyate |
na hi caittaṃ vinā cittaṃ vyarthatvān na saheṣyate ||RV4.64||
If [you ask] “What sees?”, conventionally the mind is cited, / For without a mind there is nothing mental. Because of the irrelevance [of mind and visual object singly], it is not asserted that they are simultaneous.//

vyartham evaṃ jagan matvā yāthābhūtyān nirāspadaḥ |
nirvāti nirupādāno nirupādāna-vahnivat ||RV4.65||
Thus deeming the meaningless world of men, on the grounds of how it really is, to be without any firm foundation, / Then, through with clinging, one is blown out like a fire that is through with taking hold.//

bodhisattvo ’pi dṛṣṭvaivaṃ sambodhau niyato mataḥ |
kevalaṃ tv asya kāruṇyād ā bodher bhava-saṃtatiḥ ||RV4.66||
The bodhisattva also, seeing in this way, is understood to be committed to the integral awakening of sambodhi, / But because of compassion, until this awakening, there is for him only continued becoming. //

bodhisattvasya saṃbhāro mahāyāne tathāgataiḥ |
nirdiṣṭaḥ sa tu saṃmūḍhaiḥ pradviṣṭaiś caiva nindyate ||RV4.67||
In the great vehicle a bodhisattva's necessary equipment is indicated by the tathāgatas,/ But it is traduced by men of ignorance and hatred. //

The twofold necessary equipment (saṃbhāra) is puṇya-sambhāra, acts of merit; and prajñā-sambhāra, wisdom.

guṇa-doṣānabhijño vā doṣa-saṃjñī guṇeṣu vā |
atha vāpi guṇa-dveṣī mahāyānasya nindakaḥ ||RV4.68||
One who is not conversant with merits and faults; or who, when among acts of merit, recognizes faults;/ Or else is a hater of merit: he is one who traduces the great vehicle. //

paropaghātino doṣān parānugrahiṇo guṇān |
jñātvocyate guṇa-dveṣī mahāyānasya nindakaḥ ||RV4.69||
Faults are injurious to others, acts of merit are beneficial to others: / He who knows this and yet is a hater of merit, is called a traducer of the great vehicle. //

yat svārtha-nirapekṣa-tvāt parārthaika-rasa-priyam |
guṇākaraṃ mahāyānaṃ tad dveṣī tena dahyate ||RV4.70||
The great vehicle is devotion, of a single taste, to the interests of others, having overlooked one's own self-interest: / He who hates that mine of merit is thereby consumed by the fires of his own suffering. //

śrāddho ’pi dur-gṛhītena dviṣyāt kruddho atha vetaraḥ |
śrāddho ’pi dagdha ity uktaḥ kā cintā dveṣa-bandhure ||RV4.71||
On the one hand, even a believer, due to a misapprehension, might be hostile; and so, on the other hand, might the man of anger./ Even a believer is said to be burned up [by hating]. What to think about the man bent on hatred? //

viṣeṇāpi viṣaṃ hanyād yathaivoktaṃ cikitsakaiḥ |
duḥkhenāpy ahitaṃ hanyād ity ukte kiṃ virudhyate ||RV4.72||
Just as a poison can be removed by another poison, as is said by healers, / What contradiction is there in saying that harm must be averted even if suffering is involved? //

manaḥ-pūrvaṃ-gamā dharmā manaḥ-śreṣṭhā iti śruteḥ |
hitaṃ hita-manāḥ kurvan duḥkenāpy ahitaṃ katham ||RV4.73||
According to tradition, “Dharmas have mind as their forerunner and mind is the foremost among dharmas,” / When one of benevolent mind does what is beneficial, even if it involves suffering, what harm can there be? //

duḥkham apy āyatī-pathyaṃ kāryaṃ kim u sukhaṃ hitam |
ātmanaś ca pareṣāṃ ca dharma eṣa sanātanaḥ ||RV4.74||
Even if it is painful – and how much more if it is pleasant and beneficial – / Whatever will extend well-being to self and others is to be done. This dharma is eternal. //

mātrā-sukha-parityāgāt paścāc ced vipulaṃ sukham |
tyajen mātrā-sukhaṃ dhīraḥ saṃpaśyan vipulaṃ sukham ||RV4.75||
If through abandoning small pleasures there is great happiness later,/ A steadfast soul should give up a small pleasure, with a view to great happiness.//

na mṛṣyate ca yady etat kaṭu-bhaiṣajya-dāyinaḥ |
tataś cikitsakādyāś ca hatā naivaṃ ca yujyate ||RV4.76||
If this were not acceptable, then people such as doctors dispensing bitter medicine / Would be rendered obsolete. But [to avoid suffering] in this way is not workable. //

apathyam api yad dṛṣṭaṃ tat pathyaṃ paṇḍitaiḥ kva cit |
utsargaś cāpavādaś ca sarva-śāstreṣu śasyate ||RV4.77||
Even what is [generally] unwholesome is seen by experts in certain cases to be salutary. / The general rule and the exception are praised in every field of teaching. //

karuṇā-pūrvakāḥ sarve niṣyandā jñāna-nirmalāḥ |
uktā yatra mahāyāne kas tan nindet sa-cetanaḥ ||RV4.78||
When in the great vehicle all necessary consequences are said to have compassion preceding them and wisdom leaving them untainted, / What person possessed of consciousness would slander that [vehicle]? //

atyaudāryātigāmbhīryād viṣaṇṇair akṛtātmabhiḥ |
nindyate ’dya mahāyānaṃ mohāt sva-para-vairibhiḥ ||RV4.79||
Because of its overarching transcendence and its exceeding profundity, the great vehicle nowadays is maligned by the moribund, who are not in possession of themselves – / Through ignorance, they are enemies to themselves and others. //

dāna-śīla-kṣamā-vīrya-dhyāna-prajñā-kṛpātmakam |
mahāyāna-mataṃ tasmin kasmād dur-bhāṣitaṃ vacaḥ ||RV4.80||
The vehicle whose compassionate essence is giving, ethical conduct, forbearance, perseverance, meditation, and wisdom, / Is esteemed as the great vehicle. How could there be in it any misspoken word? // 

parārtho dāna-śīlābhyāṃ kṣāntyā vīryeṇa cātmanaḥ |
dhyānaṃ prajñā ca mokṣāya mahāyānārtha-saṃgrahaḥ ||RV4.81||
Others' interests are served by giving and ethical conduct, one's own by forbearance and by perseverance, / While meditation and wisdom are directed towards liberation. [This is] a summary of the whole purpose of the great vehicle.//

parā[tma-hita-]mokṣārthāḥ saṃkṣepād buddha-śāsanam |
te ṣaṭ-pāramitā-garbhās tasmād bauddham idaṃ vacaḥ ||RV4.82||
The aims of benefiting and liberating others and self are, in brief, what the Buddha taught./ Those aims are contained in the six perfections. Therefore this is the word of Buddha.//

puṇya-jñāna-mayo yatra buddhair bodher mahā-pathaḥ |
deśitas tan mahāyānam ajñānāndhair na sahyate ||RV4.83||
The great vehicle, that means by which buddhas have pointed out enlightenment's broad path, made by good work and wisdom, is not tolerated by men who are blinded by ignorance. //

kham ivācintya-puṇya-tvād ukto ’cintya-guṇo jinaḥ |
mahāyāne yato buddha-māhātmyaṃ kṣamyatām idam ||RV4.84||
Because of acts of goodness as unfathomable as the sky, the Victorious One is said to have unthinkable merit. / On those grounds, in the great vehicle, is this magnanimity of the Buddha to be allowed. //

ārya-śāradvatasyāpi śīla-mātre ’py agocaraḥ |
yasmāt tad buddha-māhātmyam acintyaṃ kiṃ na mṛṣyate ||RV4.85||
Even within the field of ethical observance of precepts, he was beyond the range of the noble son of Śāradvatī. / On what grounds is that unthinkable magnanimity of Buddha not to be tolerated?//

Śāradvata here means Śariputra, also known as Śāradvatī-putra, lit. “son of [the mother] descended from Śarad-vat.” (Śarad-vat, “possessed of autumns,” means full of years, aged.)

anutpādo mahāyāne pareṣāṃ śūnyātā kṣayaḥ |
kṣayānutpādāyoś caikyam arthataḥ kṣamyatāṃ yataḥ ||RV4.86|
In the great vehicle, emptiness is [self-nature] never having arisen; for others, emptiness is an extinction./ In practice, extinction and non-arising are an identity; on which grounds, let it be. //

śūnyatā-buddha-māhātmyam evaṃ yuktyānupaśyatām |
mahāyānetaroktāni na sameyuḥ kathaṃ satām ||RV4.87||
Let emptiness and the magnanimity of the Buddha thus be viewed with reason. / How then can the great vehicle, and things described as different from it, for true people, not converge? //

tathāgatābhisaṃdhyoktāny asukhaṃ jñātum ity ataḥ |
ekayāna-triyānoktād ātmā rakṣya upekṣayā ||RV4.88||
The sayings taught, advisedly, by the Tathāgata, are not easy to understand, / Which being so, insofar as he spoke of one vehicle and three vehicles, the integrity of the self is to be protected, by means of impartiality.//

upekṣayā hi nāpuṇyam dveṣāt pāpaṃ kutaḥ śubham |
mahāyāne yato dveṣo nātma-kāmaiḥ kṛto ’rhati ||RV4.89||
For no harm is associated with impartiality ; [whereas] from hostility there is wrongdoing – and what good can come of that? / Therefore hostility towards the great vehicle should not be practised by those who desire [to possess] themselves. //

na bodhisattva-praṇidhir na caryā-pariṇāmanā |
uktāḥ śrāvaka-yāne ’smād bodhisattvaḥ kutas tataḥ ||RV4.90||
Neither what the bodhisatta wills, nor the redirection of the merit of practice, / Are mentioned in the vehicle of the śrāvaka, the voice-hearer. How, then, does a bodhisattva arise from that vehicle? //

adhiṣṭhānāni noktāni bodhisattvasya bodhaye |
buddhair anyat pramāṇaṃ ca ko ’sminn arthe jinādhikaḥ ||RV4.91||
Nor is mention made there, by the buddhas, of a bodhisattva's steadfast resolutions for awakening. / And as the criterion in this matter, who else is there above the victorious ones? //

adhiṣṭānārya-satyārtha-bodhi-pakṣopasaṃhitāt |
mārgāc chrāvaka-sāmānyād bauddhaṃ kenādhikaṃ phalam ||RV4.92||
How could there be a Buddhist fruit superior to the path – shared by [bodhisattvas and] śrāvakas alike – which connects the steadfast resolutions, the gist of the noble truths, and the things on the side of awakening? //

bodhi-caryā-pratiṣṭhārthaṃ na sūtre bhāṣitaṃ vacaḥ |
bhāṣitaṃ ca mahāyāne grāhyam asmād vicakṣaṇaiḥ ||RV4.93||
No word is spoken in a [śrāvaka's] sūtra of the purpose which is the foundation of a bodhisattva's practice, / But it is described in the great vehicle. Hence it is to embraced by the clear-sighted. //

yathaiva vaiyākaraṇo mātṛkām api pāṭhayet |
buddho ’vadat tathā dharmaṃ vineyānāṃ yathā-kṣamam ||RV4.94||
Just as a teacher of grammar might recite even the alphabet, / So the Buddha spoke dharma to trainees in accordance with their capacity.//

keṣāṃ cid avadad dharmaṃ pāpebhyo vinivṛttaye |
keṣāṃ cit puṇya-siddhy-arthaṃ keṣāṃ cid dvaya-niḥśritam ||RV4.95||
To some he spoke dharma so that they might turn back from wrongs; / To some [he spoke dharma] for the accomplishment of good; to some [he spoke dharma] based on dichotomies.//

dvayāniśritam ekeṣāṃ gambhīraṃ bhīru-bhīṣaṇam |
śūnyatā-karuṇā-garbham ekeṣāṃ bodhi-sādhanam ||RV4.96||
To certain individuals [he taught] a means not based on duality, profound, frightening to the fearful – / A means whose heart is emptiness and compassion. To those individuals [he taught] a means for the realization of a buddha's enlightenment. //

iti sadbhir mahāyāne kartavyaḥ pratigha-kṣayaḥ |
prasādaś cādhikaḥ kāryaḥ saṃyak-saṃbodhi-siddhaye ||RV4.97||
Thus is extinction of ill-will towards the great vehicle to be accomplished by true people./ And transcendent clarity is to be cultivated, in the direction of fulfilment of saṃyak-saṃbodhi, a buddha's complete integral enlightenment.//

mahāyāna-prasādena tad-uktācaraṇena ca |
prāpyate ’nuttarā bodhiḥ sarva-saukhyāni cāntarā ||RV4.98||
By clarity in regard to the great vehicle, and by the conduct described therein, / Supreme awakening is attained, along with every happiness on the way. //

dāna-śīla-kṣamā-satyaṃ gṛha-sthasya viśeṣataḥ |
dharma uktaḥ kṛpā-garbhaḥ sa sātmī-kriyatāṃ dṛḍham ||RV4.99||
For a lay person in particular, the truthfulness of giving, ethical conduct, and forbearance / Is said to be the dharma whose heart is compassion – let it be practised firmly, with your whole being. //

atha lokasya vaidharmyād rājyaṃ dharmeṇa duṣkaram |
tato dharma-yaśo-’rthaṃ te pravrajyādhigamaḥ kṣamaḥ ||RV4.100||
Or if, from the world's non-conduciveness to dharma, kingship is hard to practice according to dharma,/ Then for the sake of the glory of dharma, it is proper for you to go forth. //

ratnāvalyāṃ rāja-vṛttopadeśo nāma caturthaḥ paricchedaḥ ||
The end of the fourth chapter, titled Advice for the Conduct of a King, in A String of Gems.

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