Under the rose-apple tree

Under the rose-apple tree

Monday, 16 May 2016

Ratnāvalī, Chapter Five


tataḥ pravrajitenādau kāryaḥ śikṣādaraḥ paraḥ |
prati[mokṣe sa]vinaye bāhu-śrutye ’rtha-nirṇaye ||RV5.1||
Then the one gone forth first should train with the utmost sincerity / With a view to liberation through the pratimokṣa disicipline, with a view to listening well and learning much, and with a view to clarification of meaning.//

tato doṣāḥ prahātavyāḥ kṣudra-vastuka-saṃjñitāḥ |
yatnena sapta-pañcāśat kīrtyamānān nibodha tān ||RV5.2||
On those grounds, the faults known as 'matters for the meticulous' are to be abandoned: / Listen carefully as those fifty-seven are recited: //

krodhaś citta-prakopo ’sminn upanāho ’nu[bandha-kṛt] |
pāpa-pracchāndanaṃ mrakṣaḥ pradāśaḥ pāpa-saṅgitā ||RV5.3||
Anger [1] is a flaring up of the mind. Lasting enmity [2] is a symptom of that anger. / Hypocrisy [3] is wrong-doing being concealed. Resentment [4] is a clinging to wrongs done. //

māyeti vañcanā śāṭhyaṃ citta-saṃtāna-jihmatā |
īrṣyā para-guṇais tāpo mātsaryaṃ tyāga-bhīrutā ||RV5.4|
Duplicity [5] is deception. Dishonesty [6] is continuing with falsehood in one's mind. / Envy [7] is self-mortification via the assets of others. Stinginess [8] is fear of letting go. //

ahrīkatā-na-'patrāpye sva-pareṣām a-lajjane |
asaṃnati-kṛtaḥ stambhaḥ saṃrambhaḥ kopi-vibhramaḥ ||RV5.5||
Shamelessness [9] and non-embarrassment [10] are a lack of modesty where self and others are concerned. / Stiff-necked arrogance [11] is failure to practise humility. End-gaining [12] is being in a furious hurry. //

mado darpaḥ pramādas tu kuśaleṣv aprayogitā |
mānaḥ punaḥ sapta-vidhas taṃ vakṣyāmi prabhedataḥ ||RV5.6||
To be intoxicated by hubris [13] is conceit; while the intoxication of heedlessness [14] is failure to apply oneself to good practices./ Pride [15], again, is analysed seven ways, as I will describe: //

tatrābhimanyamānasya hīnād dhīnaṃ samāt samam |
hīnād vādhikam ātmānaṃ samād vā māna ucyate ||RV5.7||
Within that [category], fancying oneself to be lower than the low, or level with the middling, / Or higher than the low or the middling, is called pride [i]. //

yo ’dhamas tulyam ātmānaṃ viśiṣṭād abhimanyate |
so ’timāno viśiṣṭebhyo viśiṣṭaṃ yo ’bhimanyate ||RV5.8||
When the lowest one, because of distinction [in some area], fancies himself to be equal, / That is exceeding pride [ii]. When one thinks oneself superior to the superior, //

mānātimāno yo ’tyarthaṃ samucchraye samucchrayaḥ |
piṭako vātisaṃrabdho gaṇḍopari samutthitaḥ ||RV5.9||
When one is excessively arrogant even among the arrogant, there is aggrandizement upon aggrandizement [iii] – / Or a very angry boil appearing upon a cyst. //

yad upādāna-saṃjñeṣu skandheṣv eteṣu pañcasu |
mohād aham iti grāhaḥ so ’smi-māna udāhṛtaḥ ||RV5.10||
With regard to these five skandhas called “the aggregates of clinging,” / Conceiving out of ignorance an “I,” is called the pride of “I am.” [iv] //

abhimāno yad aprāpte phale prāptābhimānitā |
pāpa-karma-kriyā ślāghyā mithyā-mānaṃ vidur budhāḥ ||RV5.11||
Conceit [v] is fancying fruit not yet attained to have been attained. / Praising oneself for wrong-doing the wise know to be false pride [vi].//

niṣprayojana evāham iti yā [tv ātma-nin]danā |
so ’dhamo māna ity ete saptāpy uktāḥ samāsataḥ ||RV5.12||
But when self-deprecation finds expression in the words "I am utterly useless,"/ That is called the pride of inferiority [vii]. These in brief are referred to as the seven. //

kuhanā lābha-satkāra-hetor indriya-saṃvaraḥ |
lapanā lābha-satkāra-hetoś cāṭu-puras-kriyā ||RV5.13||
Pretence [16] is sensory restraint with the agenda of winning favourable treatment. / Being all talk [17] is the behaviour of being ready with sweet words, with the agenda of winning favourable treatment.//


naimittika-tvaṃ tat-prāptyai para-dravya-praśaṃsanam |
naiṣpeṣikatvaṃ lābhārthaṃ samakṣaṃ para-paṃsanam ||RV5.14||
Intimation [18] is praising another's possession for the purpose of obtaining it. / Unscrupulous acquisition [19] is openly shaming others with gain in view. //

peṣikā: rind, shell (of a fruit). As a translation of naiṣpeṣikatvaṃ, “unscrupulous acquisition” is a stopgap. TLB has “artful acquisition.” The Zen Site has "pressured acquisition."

lābhena lipsā lābhānāṃ pūrva-labdha-praśaṃsanam |
śiṅguḥ prakopitasyānyais tat tad yad anuśiñjanam ||RV5.15||
Praising what has already been acquired [shows] a desire to make [further] acquisitions, acquisitively [20]. / Parroting [21] is the rote repetition of an annoyance instigated by others.//

The translation of the second line is a another stopgap.
śiñj: to utter a shrill sound, tinkle, rattle, jingle, whirr, buzz, hum, twang, bellow, roar.
TLB: "Reciting faults is to repeat the mistakes made by others." 

The Zen Site: “Repeating faults is to recite again and again the mistakes made by others.”
The Chinese does not offer much help:
由施欲求利 或讚彼先德
說名利求利 此五邪命攝
若人緣他失 心數種種誦
說名為愔隘 此或習恨心
Desiring profit through giving,
Or by praising the other's previous merit,
Is called profit seeking profit;
This causes absorption of the five improper ways [of gain or livelihood for a monk].
Or a person indirectly causing others' loss,
The Mind repeatedly reciting in various ways, 
Is called “the comfortable strategic pass” (愔隘);
This sometimes habituates into resentment.

staimityaṃ viklavī-bhāvo ’pratisaṃkhyāna-roga-jaḥ |
ātmopakaraṇe hīne nidrā-saṅgo ’lasasya vā ||RV5.16||
Fixity [22] is a state of fearful agitation, born of lack of tranquil consideration. / In the absence of the lazy doing anything to help themselves, there is the clinging to slumber of the lazy [23].

nānātva-saṃjñā saṃjñā yā rāga-dveṣa-tamo-vṛtā |
amanas-kāram āhus taṃ yac cittasyānavekṣaṇam ||RV5.17||
Discrimination against diversity [24] is consciousness veiled by redness, hatred, and darkness./ That of the mind which is not attentive has been called “inattention” [25].

pratirūpa-kriyāsv ālasyād yā gaurava-hīnatā |
guruṣv abhagavad-vṛttir eṣā durjana-saṃmatā ||RV5.18||
Stemming from laziness is lack of proper appreciation of exemplary actions [26]. / Unprepossessing behaviour towards gurus [27] is generally recognized as the conduct of a scoundrel.//

gardho ’lpa-paryavasthānaṃ kāma-rāga-samudbhavam |
parigardho ’rtha-kāmotthaṃ paryu[tthā]naṃ mahattaram ||RV5.19||
Eagerness [28] is a small aberration arising out of the redness of desire. / Over-eagerness [29] is a greater egress, arising out of desire to gain an end. //

lobhaḥ sva-dravya-saṃgṛddhir āgo 'vyavasitaṃ manaḥ |
para-dvaryeṣv abhiṣvaṅgo viṣamo lobha ucyate ||RV5.20||
Cupidity [30] is greedy attachment to one's belongings. Being remiss is a negligent mind. [31] / Over-attachment to the belongings of others is called undue cupidity [32].

TLB: āgāvyavasitaṃ manaḥ. Taking āgo 'vyavasitaṃ manaḥ as an independent clause – “being remiss” (āgas) “is a negligent mind” (avyavasitaṃ manaḥ) – is another stop-gap solution. It at least has the virtue of bringing the number of faults up to the requisite 57.

adharma-rāgo varjyāsu strīṣv abhiṣvaṅga-sādhutā |
pāpeccha-tā nirguṇasya guṇavat-prakriyā-vidhiḥ ||RV5.21||
Passion that goes against dharma, towards unavailable women, is directness caused by over-attachment [33]./ The bad desire which belongs to the state without virtue [34], is a matter that calls for prioritizing the state which has virtue. //

mahecchatātipraṇayaḥ saṃtoṣa-śrī-vilaṅghanam |
icchepsutā kathaṃ vidyuḥ sadbhūtair māṃ guṇair iti ||RV5.22||
Having great desire [35] is undue partiality, a transgression of the auspicious state which is contentment./ [Thinking] “How might they know me as having qualities which are really good?” is a state of striving to realize a desire [36].

akṣāntir aparādhānāṃ [duḥ]khānāṃ cāsahiṣṇutā |
anācāro ya ācārya-guru-kāryeṣv anādaraḥ ||RV5.23||
Lack of forbearance [37] is an inability to endure offences and sufferings./ Failure to do the right thing [38] is insincerity in regard to tasks set by a teacher or guru.//

daur-vacasyaṃ yad uktaṃ saddharmaṃ nādriyate vacaḥ |
vitarko jñāti-saṃbandho jñātiṣu sneha-saṅgitā ||RV5.24||
What is called “bad language” is speech in which true dharma is disregarded [39]./ The idea of banding together with relatives is sentimental attachment to one's kin [40].//

tathā jānapadas ta[d ya]d atyarthaṃ tad-guṇoktitā |
tathāmara-vitarko yan na mṛtyu-bhaya-śaṅkitā ||RV5.25||
Likewise belonging to a country is a state of excessively proclaiming that country's merits [41]. / Again, the idea of not dying is a lack of apprehension about and fear of death [42]. //

anuvijñapti-saṃyukto vitarkaḥ katham eva mām |
sataiva guṇa-jātena guruṃ kuryuḥ parā iti ||RV5.26||
An idea that is connected with being recognized is: / “How might others make me their guru, due to [my] truly having good qualities.” [43] //

parānudayatā-yu[k]to vitarko yat parān prati |
sneha-vyāpāda-saṃsparśādd hitāhita-vicintanam ||RV5.27||
An idea connected with failure to promote others is [shown in] deliberating, in regard to others, about whether or not to benefit them, on the basis of a mixture of love and hate [44]. //

aratir lupta-dhairyasya samutkaṇṭhāvilaṃ manaḥ |
tandrī gātrāvasādottham ālasyam atarasvinaḥ ||RV5.28||
Discontent [45] is a function of disrupted fortitude. Pining [46] is an unclear mind. / Lassitude [47] is the idleness, arising from bodily torpor, of one who is not energetic. //

vijṛmbhikā kleśa-vaśāt kāya-vaktra-vijṛmbhaṇam |
bhakta-saṃmadam atyāśād āhuḥ kāyasya mūrcchanam ||RV5.29||
Gasping for breath [48] is due to afflictive emotion; it is a straining of the body and of the organs of speech. / Exhilaration at taking food [49] has been called a stupidity of the body caused by eating too much. //

ceto-līnatvam uddiṣṭaṃ cittasyātyartha-dīnatā |
kāmacchando vibhāvo yaḥ kāmānāṃ guṇa-pañcake ||RV5.30||
Getting mentally stuck [50] is described as undue weakness of the mind./ A liking for desires [51] is the cause of emotional longings directed towards the five attributes of the five elements.

vyāpādo nava-hetūtthā parasyānartha-cetanā |
ātma-mitrā[ri]pakṣeṣu traikālyānartha-śaṅkina ||RV5.31||
Ill-will [52] is a state of consciousness, arising from nine causes, in which one wishes adversity upon others – / By imagining of adversity, in three times in relation to self, friends, and enemies. //

Grammar of śaṅkina? Query śaṅkinā.

styāna yat kāya-manasor guru-tvād apakarmatā |
middhaṃ nidrāndhyam suddhatyaṃ kāya-cittāpraśāntatā ||RV5.32||
Sloth [53] is inactivity stemming from heaviness of body and mind./ [Another kind of] lethargy is sleepiness [54]. Undue excitement [55] is a state of physical and mental disquiet. //


The meaning of suddhatyam has not been traced. 

TLB: “Excitement is a lack of physical and mental peace.” 
Chinese: 身心掉名動, "Agitation of the body-mind is called excitement."

kaukṛtyaṃ ku-kṛte śokaḥ paścāt tāpa-samudbhavaḥ |
vicikitsā mati-dvaidhaṃ satya-ratna-trayādiṣu ||RV5.33||
Contrition [56] is anguish about having acted badly; it arises latterly, causing torment. / Indecision [57] is to be in two minds about the [four] truths, the three jewels, and so on.//

etāni bodhisattvena tyājyāni yatinādhikam |
doṣair etair vimukto hi guṇānāṃ sevate sukham ||RV5.34||
These faults are to be abandoned by a bodhisattva; there are more to be abandoned by the ascetic./ For, when one is freed from these faults, the virtues are easily practised. //

āsevyā bodhisattvena guṇās tatra samāsataḥ |
dāna-śīla-kṣamā-vīrya-dhyāna-prajñā-kṛpādayaḥ ||RV5.35||
The virtues to be practised by a bodhisattva on that path are, in summary: / Free giving, ethical conduct, forbearance, perseverance, meditation, wisdom, compassion and so on. //

dānaṃ svārtha-parityāgaḥ śīlaṃ para-hita-kriyā |
kṣāntiḥ krodha-vinirmuktir vīryaṃ śubha-parigrahaḥ ||RV5.36||
Free giving means completely letting go of one's own things; ethical conduct is action that benefits others; / Forgiveness is freedom from anger; perseverance is taking the virtues into one's possession.//

dhyānam aikāgryam akliṣṭaṃ prajñā satyārtha-niścayaḥ |
kṛpā sarveṣu sattveṣu karuṇaika-rasā matiḥ ||RV5.37||
Meditation is unafflicted single-mindedness; wisdom is exactly knowing the meaning of the truths. / Compassion is the mind whose one taste is kindness towards all beings. //

dānād bhogaḥ sukhaṃ śīlāt kṣāntyāḥ kāntiḥ śramād dyutiḥ |
dhyānāc chāntir mater muktiḥ kṛpā sarvārtha-sādhanī ||RV5.38||
From free giving stems prosperity; from ethical conduct, happiness; from forbearance, loveliness; from effort, brilliance; / From meditation, peace; from understanding, freedom. Compassion leads straight to the accomplishment of every aim. //

saptabhiḥ sakalais tv ebhir yugapat pāram āgataiḥ |
acintya-jñāna-viṣayaṃ loka-nātha-tvam āpyate ||RV5.39||
But with the simultaneous realizing of all these seven together, / The highest realm of unthinkable wisdom is attained – a state of ownership of the world. //

yathā śrāvaka-yāne ’ṣṭāv uktāḥ śrāvaka-bhūmayaḥ |
mahāyāne daśa tathā bodhisattvasya bhūmayaḥ ||RV5.40||
Just as in the vehicle of the śrāvaka eight stages of a śrāvaka are described,/ Likewise in the great vehicle there are ten stages of a bodhisattva. //

The ten stages of bodhisattva development in the great vehicle (mahāyāne daśa bodhisattvasya bhūmayaḥ; 大乘菩薩十地) are, as defined by Soothill and Hodous:
1. Pramuditā (歡喜地), joy at having overcome the former difficulties and now entering on the path to Buddhahood;
2. Vimalā (離垢地), freedom from all possible defilement, the stage of purity;
3 Prabhākarī (發光地), stage of further enlightenment;
4. Arciṣmatī (焰慧地), stage of glowing wisdom;
5. Sudurjayā (極難勝地), mastery of utmost or final difficulties [but cf. Nāgārjuna's description below];
6. Abhimukhī (現前地), the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and purity;
7. Dūraṁgamā (遠行地), proceeding afar, getting above ideas of self in order to save others;
8. Acalā (不動地), attainment of calm unperturbedness;
9. Sādhumatī (善慧地), stage of the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessed of the ten powers;
10, Dharmamegha (法雲地), attaining to the fertilizing powers of the law-cloud. Each of the ten stages is connected with each of the ten pāramitās – i.e. the six pārāmitas plus adaptability / skillful means (upāya, 方便); vowing (praṇidhāna; 願); force of purpose (bala; 力), and [final] knowing (jñāna / ājñā; 智).

tāsāṃ pūrvaṃ pramuditā bodhisattva-pramodanāt |
saṃyojana-traya-hānes tathāgata-kulodbhavāt ||RV5.41||
The first of these stages is Gladness, because of a bodhisattva's rejoicing / From having abandoned three fetters and been born into a lineage of the Tathāgata.//

Three fetters: see SN Canto 17.

jāyate ’syā vipākena dāna-pāramitā-paraḥ |
loka-dhātu-śatākampī jambūdvīpa-maheśvaraḥ ||RV5.42||
With the maturing of this stage, the perfection of giving is foremost. / Shaking a thousand regions of the world, [the bodhisattva] attains wide sovereignty over the southern continent of Jambū-dvīpa. //

dvitīyā vimalā nāma kāya-vāk-citta-karmaṇām |
daśānām api vaimalyāt prakṛtyā teṣv avasthiteḥ ||RV5.43||
The second stage is called The Untainted, because of the untaintedness of the ten kinds of action, of body, speech and mind, / And because of abiding in those actions in one's natural state. //

jāyate ’syā vipākena śīla-pāramitā-paraḥ |
sapta-ratna-prabhuḥ śrīmāṃś cakravartī jagadd-hitaḥ ||RV5.44||
With the maturing of this stage, the perfection of ethical conduct is foremost. / [The bodhisattva] becomes a possessor of the seven treasures, as an illustrious wheel-roller, benefiting the world.//

Sapta-ratna, the seven treasures are variously defined as, for example, gold, silver, lapis lazuli, crystal, agate, rubies (or red pearls), cornelian; or, in the context of a cakravartin's possessions, the golden wheel, elephants, dark swift horses, the divine pearl (or beautiful pearls); able ministers of the Treasury, jewels of women, and loyal generals.

prabhākarī tṛtīyā tu śānta-jñāna-prabhodbhavāt |
dhyānābhijñā-samutpādād rāga-dveṣa-parikṣayāt ||RV5.45||
The third stage, then, is The Luminous, because of the arising of the light of the wisdom of coming to quiet, / Because of the arising together of the [four] stages of meditation and the [six] powers of knowing, and because of the evaporation of lust and hatred. //

TLB: pabhākarī

jāyate ’syā vipākena kṣānti-vīryādhika-kriyaḥ |
kṛtī maheśākhyaḥ devānāṃ kāma-rāga-nivartakaḥ ||RV5.46||
With the maturing of this stage, the practice of forbearance and perseverance comes to the fore. / [The bodhisattva] becomes a great and powerful ruler of the gods, an accomplished man of action, having turned back from the redness of desire. //

caturthy arciṣmatī nāma saṃyag-jñānārcir-udbhavāt |
bhāvanād bodhi-pakṣāṇāṃ sakalānāṃ viśeṣataḥ ||RV5.47||
The fourth stage is called The Shining, because of the arising of the radiance of true wisdom, / Stemming especially from the cultivation, all together, of the [thirty-seven] things on the side of awakening. //

jāyate ’syā vipākena suyāmālaya-deva-rāṭ |
sat-kāya-dṛṣṭi-saṃparka-samudghāta-karaḥ kṛtī ||RV5.48||
With the maturing of this stage, [the bodhisattva] becomes a king in the abode of the Suyāma gods, / Being accomplished in ending adulteration by the view which sees the body as [separately] existing. // 

sudurjayā pañcamī tu sarva-māraiḥ sudurjayāt |
ārya-satyādi-sūkṣmārtha-jñāna-kauśala-saṃbhavāt ||RV5.49||
The fifth stage, though, is The Very Hard to Beat, because [the bodhisattva is] very hard for any Māra to beat / After he has realized skill in knowing the subtle meaning of the noble truths and so on. //

jāyate ’syā vipākena tuṣitālaya-deva-rāṭ |
sarva-tīrtha-kara-kleśa-dṛṣṭi-sthāna-nivartakaḥ ||RV5.50||
With the maturing of this stage, [the bodhisattva] becomes king of the abode of the Tuṣita gods,/ Turned back from the afflictive emotions, the views, and the positions of all the sectarians. //

ṣaṣṭhī tv abhimukhī nāma buddha-dharmābhimukhya-taḥ |
vipaśyanā-śamābhyāsān nirodhāvāpti-puṣkalā ||RV5.51||
The sixth stage is called The Turned Towards, because of [the bodhisattva] being turned towards a buddha's dharma, / Through the pervading quietness of insight. It is a stage resonant with realization of cessation. //

jāyate ’syā vipākena deva-rājaḥ sunirmitaḥ |
śrāvakānām asaṃhārya ādhimānika-śaṃkaraḥ ||RV5.52||
With the maturing of this stage, [the bodhisattva] becomes a king of the Su-nirmita gods, / A pacifier of the conceited, who cannot be encumbered by śrāvakas.//

dūraṃ-gamā saptamī tu saṃkhyā-dūraṃgamānvayāt |
āpadyate nirodhaṃ ca yasmād asyāṃ kṣaṇe kṣaṇe ||RV5.53||
The seventh stage, then, is The Far Reaching, because it is associated with reasoning that goes far, // On which grounds, in this stage, [the bodhisattva] takes possession of cessation at every moment.//

jāyate ’syā vipākena vaśa-varty amarādhipaḥ |
ārya-satyābhisamaya-jñānācārya-mahā-nṛpaḥ ||RV5.54||
With the maturing of this stage, [the bodhisattva] becomes an all-powerful ruler of the Immortals; / A great protector of men among those who teach the act of knowing, with integral understanding of the noble truths. //


kumāra-bhūmir acalā niścala-tvāt tathāṣṭamī | ... ||RV5.55
The eighth stage, a youth-stage, is The Imperturbable because, again, of its unshakeability. / ...
[RV5.55]
童子地不動 由不出真觀
無分別難思 非身口意境
The youth stage is The Imperturbable,
Because of not leaving true reflection,
It is free of intellectual discrimination, unthinkable,
Beyond the boundaries of body, speech, and mind.

[RV5.56]
因此地果報 方便智現前
得為大梵王 能通第一義
證方便勝智 六度生無間
於三乘世俗 為最第一師
With the maturing of this stage,
The wisdom of expedient means (upāya-pāramitā) is to the fore.
[The bodhisattva] becomes a great Brahmā-King,
Capable of penetrating the ultimate truth.
He establishes the excellent wisdom of expedient means.
The six perfections arise without any gap.
To the three vehicles and the world,
[The bodhisattva] becomes a supreme teacher.

[RV5.57]
第九名善慧 法王太子位
此中智最勝 由通達四辯
The ninth stage is called Sādhu-matī, Understanding that Hits the Target,
With the rank of an heir-apparent to the king of dharma.
In this state, wisdom is of the highest order,
Because of realization of the four kinds of discernment.

[RV5.58]
因此地果報 願度常現前
勝遍光梵主 淨土等自在
二乘等不及 於真俗一義
俱修動靜故 行二利無間
With the maturing of this stage,
The perfection of vowing (praṇidhāna-pāramitā) is constantly to the fore.
As a Brahma-ruler who excellently radiates light,
[The Bodhisattva] freely exercises sovereignty over pure lands.
The two vehicles and the like cannot match
The paramount meaning which unites the true and the profane.
Because of ethical conduct, perseverance and quietness, all together,
He practises for the dual benefit [of self and others] without any gap.

[RV5.59]
第十名法雲 能雨正法雨
佛光水灌身 受佛灌頂位
The tenth stage, called Dharma-megha, The Cloud of Dharma,
Is able to rain the rain of true dharma,
Which showers the body with the light and water of Buddha.
[The bodhisattva] receives the Buddha's shower on the crown of his head.

[RV5.60]
因此地果報 力度常現前
為遍淨梵王 四答難無等...
因此地果報 智度常現前
為淨居梵王 大自在天王
智慧境難思 諸佛祕密藏
得具足自在 後生補處位
With the maturing of this stage,
The perfection of forcefulness (bala-pāramitā) is constantly to the fore.
[The bodhisattva] becomes a Brahma-king of universal purity.
The four ways of answering [questions] whose difficulty is unequalled ...
With the maturing of this stage,
The perfection of knowing (jñāna-pāramitā) is constantly to the fore.
[The bodhisattva] becomes a Brahma-king of the pure abode,
A king of the great gods of freewill.
[The bodhisattva's] wisdom, its limits unthinkable,
Is the secret treasury of the buddhas.
He takes full possession of freedom,
With the rank of one who when born later will make good the state [of buddha].

[RV5.61]
如此菩薩地 十種我已說
佛地與彼異 具勝德難量
Thus the bodhisattva's
Ten stages, I have explained.
The difference between the stage of buddha and those stages,
Equipped as they are with excellent merits, is immeasurable.

[RV5.62]
此地但略說 十力等相應
隨此一一力 難量如虛空
These stages have been explained only in brief,
Corresponding with the ten powers.
Each one of these powers
Is as hard to fathom as space.

[RV5.63]
如此等可言 諸佛無量德
如十方虛空 及地水火風
Such merits as these may be called
The immeasurable merits of the buddhas,
Like space in the ten directions,
And earth, water, fire and wind.

[RV5.64]
諸佛無量德 於餘人難信
若不見此因 難量如此果
The immeasurable merits of the buddhas
Would be, in the case of other people, unbelievable.
If one does not see this cause,
Similarly hard to fathom is this effect.

[RV5.65]
為此因及果 現前佛支提
日夜各三遍 願誦二十偈
On account of this cause and effect,
Serve offerings before a buddha.
Three times every day-and-night,
Recite the twenty verses:

[Verse 1; RV5.66]
諸佛法及僧 一切諸菩薩
我頂禮歸依 餘可尊亦敬
To buddhas, to the dharma, and to the sangha,
To all bodhisattvas,
I bow my head and devote myself,
Also paying respects to other venerable ones.

[Verse 2; RV5.67]
我離一切惡 攝持一切善
眾生諸善行 隨喜及順行
Leaving behind all wrongdoing,
I shall practise all that is good.
The good acts of living beings
I shall rejoice in and follow.

[Verse 3; RV5.68]
頭面禮諸佛 合掌勸請住
願為轉法輪 窮生死後際
With head and face bowing to the buddhas,
With joined palms, asking permission to dwell among them,
I request turning of the dharma wheel,
Until birth and death have been exhausted.

[Verse 4; RV5.69]
從此行我德 已作及未作
因此願眾生 皆發菩提心
Whatever merit there is from this action I am doing,
Have done, and am yet do,
Because of this, may living beings
All establish the bodhi-mind.

[Verse 5; RV5.70]
度一切障難 圓滿無垢根
具淨命相應 願彼自在事
Overcoming all obstacles and hardships,
Roundly and fully, being free of the roots of defilement,
May they be endowed accordingly with a pure livelihood.
I wish for them the matter of freedom.

[Verse 6; RV5.71]
一切具無邊 與寶手相應
窮後際無盡 願眾生如此
Possessed of all necessities, without limit,
Together with the valuable hands to use those goods –
Endlessly into the future,
I wish that living beings might be like this.

[Verse 7; RV5.72]
願一切女人 皆成勝丈夫
恒於一切時 明足得圓滿
May all women
Become in every case excellent human beings,
And constantly, at every moment,
Roundly and fully possess the legs of clarity.

Legs (足) sometimes represents the twofold practice of merit (summarizing the first five of the six pāramitās) and wisdom (the sixth).

[Verse 8; RV5.73]
勝形貌威德 好色他愛見
無病力辦具 長壽願彼然
An excellent physique, and dignity,
An agreeable complexion, that others love to see,
Freedom from disease, strength, resourcefulness,
And long life – I wish these things for others.

[Verse 9; RV5.74]
解脫諸苦畏 一向歸三寶
於方便善巧 佛法為大財
Liberated from all kinds of suffering and fear,
Devoted in one direction to the triple gem,
Skilled in the use of expedient means,
May they see the buddha-dharma as the great treasure.

[Verse 10; RV5.75]
慈悲喜淨捨 恒居四梵住
施戒忍精進 定智所莊嚴
With benevolence, compassion, joy, purity, and detachment,
May they constantly dwell in the four abodes of brahma, or spiritual development.
May they be adorned by free giving, ethical conduct, forbearance, perseverance, balance and wisdom.

[Verse 11; RV5.76]
圓滿福慧行 相好光明照
願彼難思量 行十地無礙
Replete with the practice of merit and wisdom,
Shining with the light of auspicious signs,
May they move without hindrance
Through the ten unfathomable stages.

[Verse 12; RV5.77]
與此德相應 餘德所莊嚴
解脫一切過 願我愛眾生
In accordance with this merit,
Adorned with other merits,
And liberated from all faults,
May I have love for living beings.

[Verse 13; RV5.78]
圓滿一切善 及眾生所樂
能除他眾苦 願我恒如此
May I fully realize all kinds of good,
Along with what living beings rejoice in.
Constantly being like this,
May I be able to relieve the suffering [of other beings]... 


.. sarva-dehinām ||RV5.78||
… of all embodied beings. //

[Verse 14]
ye ca ke cid bhayodvignāḥ sarva-lokeṣu jantavaḥ |
atyanta-nirbhayās te syur man-nāma-śravaṇād api ||RV5.79||
May beings in every world who are trembling with fear, / Be completely free of fear, even on hearing my name.//

[Verse 15]
kupitāḥ prasannāḥ svasthā darśanāt sparśanāc ca me |
nāma-śra[vaṇa-mātreṇa saṃbodhi]niyatā janāḥ ||RV5.80||
May people who have been provoked be soothed, well in themselves, on seeing and touching me. / Merely on hearing my name, may they be assured of full awakening.//

[Verse 16]
abhijāḥ prāpnuyāt pañca sarva-janmānugāmīḥ |
sarvaśaḥ sarva-sattvānāṃ kuryād dhita-sukhe sadā ||RV5.81||
May [each] attain five powers of knowing that follow them in every birth. / May [each] always in every way contribute to the contentment of every living being. //

[Verse 17]
ye pāpāni cikīrṣanti sarva-lokeṣu vartataḥ |
vārayeya[ṃ nirābādhaṃ] tān sarvān yugapat sadā ||RV5.82||
Those in all the worlds who, in earning a living, are about to commit wrongs, / May I always prevent them, all together, in such a way that no harm is done.//

[Verse 18]
pṛthivī-toya-vāyv-agni-bhaiṣajyāraṇya-vṛkṣa-vat |
svaireṇāvṛta-bhogyaḥ syāṃ sarva-prāṇa-bhṛtāṃ sadā ||RV5.83||
Like the earth, water, wind, fire, herbs, and the trees of the forest, / May I always be of unobstructed benefit, at their behest, to all beings that bear breath. //

[Verse 19]
prāṇa-priyaḥ syāṃ sattvānāṃ [te mat-priyatarāś ca me |
teṣāṃ pāpaṃ ma]yi pacye[n] mac-chubhaṃ teṣu cākhilam ||RV5.84||
May I be as dear as life-breath to living beings and may they be dearer still to me. / May their wrongdoing cause me, and my goodness cause them, to develop – there being no gap.//

[Verse 20]
yāvac caiko ’py amuktaḥ syāt sattvaḥ kaś cid iha kva cid |
tāvat tad-arthaṃ tiṣṭheyaṃ bodhiṃ prāpyāpy anuttarām ||RV5.85||
As long as any living being – even one single one – anywhere in this world is not yet liberated,/ May I remain here for that being, even after attaining the supreme awakening.”//

yad evaṃ vadataḥ puṇyaṃ yadi tan mūrtimad bhavet |
gaṅgāyāḥ sikatākhyeṣu na māyāl loka-dhātuṣu ||RV5.86||
If the merit of speaking in this way had material substance, / It would not fit into realms as numerous as grains of sand in the Ganges. //

uktam etad bhagavatā hetur apy atra dṛśyate |
sattva-dhātor ameyasya hitā saṃjñeyam īdṛśī ||RV5.87||
This was said by the Glorious One and the reasoning behind it is evident:/ The extending of benefit to the immeasurable realm of living beings is understood to be similarly immeasurable. //

iti dharmaḥ samākhyātaḥ saṃkṣepaāt tava yo mayā |
priyaḥ sa te stu satataṃ yathātmā satataṃ priyaḥ ||RV5.88||
Dharma has thus been related to you in brief by me. / Let it be ever dear to you, as your own self is ever dear. //

priyaś ca yasya dharmaḥ syāt tasyaivātmā priyo ’rthataḥ |
priyasya hi hitaṃ kāryaṃ dharmād bhavati tat-kṛte ||RV5.89||
One who holds the dharma dear does hold dear, in practice, his very self. / For on account of that devotion, through dharma, extending of benefit becomes practicable. //

bhajātmavad ato dharmaṃ pratipatti[ṃ ca] dharmavat |
pratipattim iva prajñāṃ prajñām iva ca paṇḍitān ||RV5.90||
And so honour dharma as yourself and honour a practical undertaking as dharma./ Honour wisdom as a practical undertaking and honour wise teachers as wisdom itself.//

śuci-snigdhaṃ buddhimantaṃ nigṛhya-hita-vādinam |
śaṅketa yaḥ sva-daurātmyāt sa sva-kāyaṃ vināśayet ||RV5.91||
[When the wise are] pure in friendship, endowed with understanding and, through exercise of self-restraint, full of benevolent speech,/ One who, out of his own small-mindedness, is distrustful, renders his own body useless. //

eṣāṃ kalyāṇa-mitrāṇāṃ viddhi saṃkṣepa-lakṣaṇam |
saṃtoṣaḥ karuṇā śīlaṃ prajñā ca [kleśa-śā]tanī ||RV5.92||
Know that these friends in the good are marked, in brief, by: / Contentment, compassion, moral integrity, and the wisdom that cuts out afflictive emotions.//

ebhis tavopadiṣṭavyaṃ jñātvā kāryaṃ tvayādarāt |
anayā naya-saṃpattyā parāṃ siddhim avāpsyasi ||RV5.93||
Know the work that they will teach you wholeheartedly to do, / And by this supreme plan of action you will attain realization. // 


satya-sattva-priyābhāṣī sukha-śīlo dur-āsadaḥ |
nītimān nikṛti-dveṣī svatantraḥ suvacā bhava ||RV5.94||
In speech be truthful, strong and loving; be easy in maintaining moral integrity, which is a difficult combination to meet;/ Be civil, hating abusive ways; be self-controlled and well-spoken.//

sudāntānuśayas tyāgī tejasvī śānta-mānasaḥ |
adīrgha-sūtro ’capalo niḥsādyo bhava dakṣiṇaḥ ||RV5.95||
Well-tamed, devoted, generous, energetic, of quieted mind,/ Be neither procrastinating nor impulsive, be unflagging, and be straightforward. //

bhava pūrṇendu-vat saumyas tejasvī śarad-arka-vat |
samudra iva gambhīraḥ sthira-dharmaḥ sumeru-vat ||RV5.96||
Be as mild as the full moon and as full of fiery energy as the autumn sun. / Be as deep as the ocean and as firm in nature as Mount Meru.//

sarva-doṣair vinirmukto guṇaiḥ sarvair alaṃkṛtaḥ |
sarva-sattvopajīvyaś ca bhava sarva-jña eva ca ||RV5.97||
Freed from every fault, adorned with every virtue; / Be the life-support of all beings. Be the All-Knowing One himself.//

na kevalam ayaṃ dharmo rājña evopadiśyate |
anyebhyo ’pi yathāyogaṃ sattvebhyo hita-kāmyayā ||RV5.98||
Not only for a king has this dharma been taught, / But with the wish also to benefit, according to circumstance, other living beings.//

imāṃ parikathāṃ rājan pratyahaṃ śrotum arhasi |
ātmanaś ca pareṣāṃ ca saṃyak-saṃbodhi-siddhaye ||RV5.99||
To this counsel, O King, please attend day by day, / So that self and others may realize saṃyak-saṃbodhi, complete integral awakening. //

[RV5.100]
śīlaṃ gauravam uttamaṃ guru-jane kṣāntiṃ tathānīrṣyatāṃ
mātsaryāpagamaṃ parārtha-dhanitāṃ kṛtvā ni[rākāṅkṣayā] |
能行善惡人 攝持及制伏
弘護佛正法 求菩提應行
[Attend to] ethical conduct, deepest respect for teachers, forbearance, likewise non-jealousy, letting go of stinginess, being endowed with the wealth of altruism, and acting without expectation of gain;/
Being able to deal with people both good or bad,
Supporting [the former] and restraining [the latter];
Broadly safeguarding the Buddha's true dharma;
And pursuing conduct that accords with a buddha's enlightenment. //

寶行王正論出家正行品第五
True Advice to a King of Jewel-Conduct – Chapter 5, The True Conduct of a Home-Leaver.

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