Under the rose-apple tree

Under the rose-apple tree

Monday, 16 May 2016

Ratnāvalī, Chapter Three

諸佛大相好 從難思福生
我今為汝說 依大乘阿舍
How the great signs of buddhas
Arise out of unthinkable merit,
I now will explain to you,
Relying on the Āgamas of the Great Vehicle.

The Āgamas means the Āgama Sūtras, i.e. the collection of the early discourses of the Buddha. MW gives āgama as: “anything handed down and fixed by tradition.” The Pali equivalent of the Āgama Sūtras is the Nikāyas, so that, for example the Sanskrit samyuktāgama corresponds to the Pali Saṃyutta Nikāya.

一切緣覺福 有學無學福
及十方世福 福如世難量
All the merit of the pratyeka-buddha,
The merit of those possessed of learning and those without learning,
Along with the merit of the world in ten directions,
Is merit as unfathomable as the world.

此福更十倍 感佛一毛相
九萬九千毛 一一福皆爾
This merit increased ten times
Is rewarded by the manifestation of one hair of a buddha.
And for every one of a buddha's ninety-nine thousand hairs,
The merit is like that.


如此眾多福 生佛一切毛
復更百倍增 方感佛一好
Merit accumulated like this
Born in all of a buddha's hairs,
Again increased one hundred times,
Will be rewarded by of one of a buddha's minor auspicious signs.

如是如是多 一一好得成
乃至滿八十 隨飾一大相
As much [merit] as this
Having been realized in each minor auspicious sign,
Fully up to the eightieth,
Is not equal to the adorning of one great sign.

如是福德聚 能感八十好
合更百倍增 感佛一大相
Accumulation of merit like this,
Able to witness eighty auspicious signs,
When again increased one hundred times,
Experiences one great sign of a buddha.

如是多福德 能感三十相
復更百倍增 感毫如滿月
Merit as abundant as this,
Able to witness thirty signs,
When again increased one hundred times,
Experiences the curl of white hair as if it were the full moon.

能感白毫福 復更千倍增
此福感難見 頂上鬱尼沙
Let the merit which is able to experience the circle of white hair,
Again be increased a thousand times.
This merit experiences what is rarely seen:
The uṣṇīṣa protrusion on the forehead.

如此無量福 方便說有量
於一切十方 如說十倍世
If immeasurable merit like this,
Were explained, with a convenient fiction, as having quantity,
It would be like explaining the whole world in ten directions,
Multiplied ten times.

諸佛色身因 尚如世無量
況佛法身因 而當有邊際
The cause of the material body of buddhas
Is like the limitlessness of the world.
How can the cause of the Buddha's dharma body
Have limits?

世間因雖小 若果大難量
佛因既無量 果量云何思
A cause in the world, though it is small,
If the effect is great, is hard to fathom.
The cause of buddha is already unfathomable.
How can the extent of its effect be thinkable?

諸佛有色身 皆從福行起
大王佛法身 由智慧行成
The buddhas have a material body,
Entirely arising from practising acts of merit.
A buddha's dharma-body, O Great King,
Is realized from practising wisdom.

故佛福慧行 是菩提正因
故願汝恒行 菩提福慧行
Therefore a buddha's practice of merit and wisdom
Are the true cause of bodhi.
Therefore may you constantly practise
The merit and wisdom of bodhi.

於成菩提福 汝莫墮沈憂
有理及阿舍 能令心安信
With regard to achieving the merit that leads to a buddha's enlightenment,
You must not be downhearted.
Reason, along with the Āgamas,
Allows the mind to be confident.

如十方無邊 空及地水火
有苦諸眾生 彼無邊亦爾
Just as space in the ten directions is limitless,
Along with earth, water and fire,
So also are suffering sentient beings
Similarly limitless.

此無邊眾生 菩薩依大悲
從苦而拔濟 願彼般涅槃
These limitless living beings
The bodhisattva, relying on universal compassion,
Seeks to extricate and to lead out from suffering,
Willing their nirvāṇa.

從發此堅心 行住及臥覺
或時小放逸 無量福恒流
From establishing this resolve,
When walking or standing, and when lying down or awake –
Notwithstanding occasional slight lapses –
Limitless merit constantly flows.

福量如眾生 恒流無間隙
因果既相稱 故菩提不難
The measure of the merit is like that of [the suffering of] sentient beings:
It is a constant stream, without interval.
Cause and effect are perfectly matched.
Therefore a buddha's enlightenment is not inaccessible.

時節及眾生 菩提與福德
由此四無量 菩薩堅心行
Time, living beings,
A buddha's enlightenment, and [this] merit –
Relying on these four immeasurables,
The bodhisattva with steadfast mind acts.

菩提雖無量 因前四無量
修福慧二行 云何難可得
Although the truth of bodhi is immeasurable,
With the aforementioned four immeasurables as cause,
When [the bodhisattva] cultivates the twofold practice of merit and wisdom,
How can a buddha's enlightenment be inaccessible?

福慧二種行 如此無邊際
菩薩身心苦 故疾得消除
Twofold practice of merit and wisdom
In this way is limitless.
The bodhisattva is therefore swiftly able to assuage
Physical and mental pain and suffering.

惡道飢渴等 身苦惡業生
菩薩永離惡 行善苦不生
Physical suffering in the realms of the hungry and thirsty, and other bad states,
Are produced from bad karma.
The bodhisattva who eternally transcends doing bad,
And practises the good, does not produce suffering.

欲瞋怖畏等 心苦從癡生
由依無二智 菩薩離心苦
Desire, hatred, fear,
And other sufferings of the mind arise out of ignorance.
Relying on the wisdom which is free of duality,
The bodhisattva transcends suffering of the mind.

有苦時若促 難忍何況多
無苦時長遠 有樂云何難
When suffering is present, if it is touched off [even slightly],
It is hard to endure – and how much more so if it is great.
When there is no suffering, there is lasting happiness:
What hardship can there be?

身苦永不有 假說有心苦
悲世間二苦 故恒住生死
Where physical suffering is forever absent,
How could mental suffering be said to be present?
[And yet] because of compassion for the two kinds of suffering of the world,
[The bodhisattva] continues to endure life and death.

故菩提長時 智人心不沈
為滅惡生善 是時無間修
A wise person's mind does not sink into despondency
On account of a buddha's enlightenment being a long time coming.
For the ceasing of wrongdoing, and the arising of good,
[The wise one] ceaselessly cultivates the present moment.

貪瞋及無明 願汝識捨離
無貪等眾善 知應恭敬修
May you mind, may you abandon, and may you transcend
Greed, hatred and ignorance.
Know freedom from greed, and other kinds of good,
And sincerely cultivate them.

由貪生鬼道 由瞋墮地獄
由癡入畜生 翻此感人天
Through greed one is born in the state of a hungry ghost;
Through hatred one falls into hell;
Through ignorance one enters an animal life;
Transcending these, one experiences being a human or a god.

捨惡及修善 此法是樂因
若是解脫法 由智捨二執
Abandoning wrong-doing and cultivating good –
This dharma is the cause of happiness.
If the state here and now is dharma-practice of liberation,
Dual attachments, through wisdom, are being abandoned.

佛像及支提 殿堂并寺廟
最勝多供具 汝應敬成立
For Buddha-images and for the making of offerings,
For halls, wells, temples, and shrines,
You should respectfully establish
Most excellent and abundant provisions.

坐寶蓮花上 好色微妙畫
一切金寶種 汝應造佛像
Buddha-images sitting on jewel lotuses,
Of lovely colours, finely drawn,
You should create
With all kinds of precious metals and gems. 

正法及聖眾 以命色事護
金寶網繖蓋 奉獻覆支提
The true dharma and the sacred assembly,
Serve and safeguard with your life and colour.
Reverently cover offerings
With webbed canopies of gold and gems.

金銀眾寶花 珊瑚琉璃珠
帝釋青大青 金剛貢支提
Offer gold, silver, and masses of jewel flowers,
Coral, lapis lazuli, and pearls.
Offer tributes of emeralds of Indra, and great sapphires,
And diamonds set in gold.

能說正法人 以四事供養
六和敬等法 常應勤修行
To people who are able to preach true dharma
Serve offerings of the four things.
The six ways – harmony, respect et cetera –
You should constantly cultivate and practice with diligence.

四事, the four things, are generally given as clothing, food & drink, bedding, and medicine. 

和敬清寂, harmony, respect, purity and tranquility, are regarded as the four most important elements of the tea ceremony. Soothill & Hodous reference 六法念, but do not list the six.

於尊恭敬聽 勤事而侍護
菩薩必應行 亡後亦供養
In a state of honour, reverence, respect and sincere listening,
Do service and wait upon
Bodhisattvas without fail.
Serve offerings also to those who have passed away.

於天外道眾 不應親事禮
因無知邪信 莫事惡知識
You should not be close to, or serve, or socialize with
Groups of celestial beings who are off the way.
Because the ignorant believe in what is false,
Do not serve bad teachers.

佛阿含及論 書寫讀誦施
亦惠紙筆墨 汝應修此福
Writing out, making copies, reading, reciting and making presents of
The Buddha's Āgamas, along with commentaries,
And along with gifts of paper, pens and ink –
This is merit you should cultivate.

於國起學堂 雇師供學士
興建永基業 汝行為長慧
Wherever in the land a school has sprung up,
Employ teachers and scholars.
And construct facilities that will form a lasting foundation for their work –
Do this for the promotion of wisdom.

解醫巧曆數 皆為立田疇
潤老小病苦 於國有濟益
Promote understanding of medical skills, the calendar, numeracy,
And all that is necessary for establishment of agriculture.
For the comfort of the old and young, the sick and infirm,
Let there be assistance in your kingdom.

起諸道伽藍 園塘湖亭屋
於中給生具 草蓐飲食薪
By roads and in monasteries let there be
Gardens, dikes, lakes, pavillions.
In them provide necessities for living –
Straw mats, cushions, drink, food, and firewood.

於小大國土 應起寺亭館
遠路乏水漿 造井池施飲
In lands small and great,
Let there be temples and rest-houses.
On distant roads with scant water
Construct wells and ponds to provide something to drink.

病苦無依貧 下姓怖畏等
依慈悲攝受 勤心安立彼
Sufferers from illness, the poor and destitute,
People of humble birth, those living in fear, and so on
Treat and receive with compassion.
With diligent mind comfort and support them.

隨時新飲食 果菜及新穀
大眾及須者 未施莫先用
Fresh drink and food, in accordance with the season,
Fruit, vegetables and fresh grain,
Offer to the great assembly [of monks] and people in need.
Before making the offering, don't partake yourself.

屣繖瓶鉤鑷 針綖及扇等
荃提寢息具 應施寺亭館
Providing straw sandals, umbrellas, jars, pins, tweezers,
Needles and thread, fans and so on,
You should offer fine cloth for bedding and rest
At temples and rest-houses.

三果及三辛 蜜糖酥眼藥
恒應安息省 書咒及藥方
[Provide] the three fruits and three spices,
Honey, sugar, milk, and eye-drops.
Constantly make available for recuperation and reflection,
Written mantras, as well as instructions for medicines.

塗首身藥油 澡盤燈糗果
水器及刀斧 應給亭館中
Medicinal oils for applying to head and body,
Washing bowls, lamps, parched wheat, fruit,
Water containers, and knives and axes,
Should be provided inside the rest houses.

米穀麻飲食 糖膏等相應
恒置陰涼處 及淨水滿器
Rice, grains, hemp, food and drink,
Sugar, fat and so on, as appropriate,
Constantly have placed in a cool and shady place,
Along with vessels filled with clean water.

於蟻鼠穴門 飲食穀糖等
願令可信人 日日分布散
At the openings where ants and mice pass,
Please have a trustworthy person
Provide a daily portion
Of drink and food – grain, sugar and so on.

如意前後食 恒施於餓鬼
狗鼠鳥蟻等 願汝恒施食
Willingly, before and after eating,
Always make offerings to hungry ghosts.
To dogs, mice, birds, ants, and so on,
Please always offer food.

災疫飢餓時 水旱及賊難
國敗須濟度 願汝恒拯恤
At times of fire, flood, and famine,
In droughts, when refugees are fleeing war,
And to defeated nations in need of assistance,
Please always give help and provide relief.

田夫絕農業 願給糧種具
隨時蠲租稅 輕微受調斂
To farmers who lost their harvests,
Please provide provisions and seeds.
When necessary exempt them from tariffs and taxes,
Or receive less, making adjustment.

施物濟貧債 出息不長輕
直防許休偃 以時接賓客
Provide goods to help the poor and indebted
Lighten the burden of their expenditures.
直防許休偃 以時接賓客

Hopkins (from Tibetan):
Free them from the suffering [that follows when the tax collector] is waiting at the door.

境內外劫盜 方便斷令息
隨時遺商侶 平物價鈞調
Within and without the borders,
Use expedient means to eliminate thieving.
When appropriate leave shopkeepers
By their adjustments, to keep prices of goods in balance.

八座等判事 自如理觀察
事能利萬姓 恒恭敬修行
The eight seats and other judicial matters
Supervise yourself within reason.
So that these matters may benefit the ten-thousand families,
Let them be carried out with constant sincerity.

應作何自利 如汝恒敬思
利他云何成 如此汝急思
Just as sincerely as you always consider,
“What should I do for my own benefit?”
So should you urgently consider,
“How can I benefit others?”

地水風火等 草藥及野樹
如此或暫時 受他無礙策
Earth, water, wind, fire and so forth,
Grass and herbs, fields and trees,
Accept others without any impeding agenda.
Even if only for a moment, be like this.

七步頃起心 為捨內外財
菩薩福德成 難量如虛空
When in the space of seven steps the mind arises
To abandon inner and outer possessions,
The bodhisattva's realization of merit
Is as unfathomable as space.

童女好色嚴 惠施求得者
故獲陀羅尼 能持一切法
If you grant your blessing to the suitors
Of young women, with their lovely complexions and adornments,
On that account you will obtain a dhāraṇī
That allows you to retain the whole of dharma. 

愛色具莊嚴 并一切生具
施八萬童女 釋迦佛昔時
Women fully endowed with lovely complexions and adornments,
Along with all the necessities of life –
Eighty thousand such young women,
Śākyamuni Buddha gave away in ancient times.

光明種種色 衣服莊嚴具
花香等應施 依悲惠求者
Clothing complete with ornaments,
Bright with every kind of colour,
And flowers, perfume and suchlike, you should donate
With compassionate blessings to those who seek them.

若人離此緣 於法無安行
則應施與之 過此後莫惠
If people are deprived of this opportunity to practise dharma,
Lacking a sure way to go,
You should at once provide it.
There is no blessing that surpasses this.

毒亦許施彼 若此能利他
甘露不許施 若此損害他
Give to others even poison
If it can benefit them.
But even sweet nectar is not to be given
If it is harmful to others.

若蛇嚙人指 佛亦聽則除
或佛教利他 逼惱亦可行
Suppose that a snake bites a person's finger:
The Buddha, likewise, upon listening, acts at once to remove [poisons].
So there are cases of the Buddha's teaching benefiting others
In which driving out of emotional venom may be practised like that.

固謹持正法 及能說法人
恭敬聽受法 或以法施他
Steadfastly honour and maintain true dharma,
As well as a person who is able to expound dharma,
Sincerely listen and receive the dharma,
And when possible impart the dharma to others.

莫愛世讚歎 恒樂出俗法
如立自體德 於他亦如此
Do not love worldly hearsay;
Constantly delight in dharma that transcends vulgarity.
As you establish in yourself bodily acts of merit,
Cause others to do likewise.

於聞莫知足 及思修實義
於師報恩施 應敬行莫吝
Do not be satisfied with hearing;
Think out, and cultivate, the valuable meaning.
Repaying teachers for their benevolent gift,
You should practice sincerely, sparing nothing.

莫讀外邪論 但起諍慢故
不應讚自德 怨德亦可讚
Do not read exotic and false commentaries.
Disputes arise solely because of pride.
You should not praise your own merits.
You can praise, however, the merits of adversaries.

莫顯他密事 及惡心兩舌
自於他有過 如理觀悔露
Do not make known to others secret things,
Nor [speak] malevolently with two tongues.
There are mistakes which the self has inflicted on others –
In accordance with reason, reflect on them with tears of regret.

若由此過失 智者訶責他
自須離此失 有能拔濟他
When a wise person wishes to censure another
Because of a certain fault,
The wise one himself should transcend this fault.
Then he will have the ability to extricate others and help them.

他辱己莫瞋 即觀宿惡業
莫報對他惡 為後不受苦
One must not react with hate to the insults of others,
But reflect at once on one's own past wrongdoing.
Do not repay others' wrongs –
That way, further pain will not be suffered.

於他應作恩 莫希彼報答
唯自應受苦 共求眾受樂
Do your best to help others,
And do not expect them to pay you back.
One should suffer pain alone,
And seek company to share joy.

若得大富貴 自高不應作
遭枉如餓鬼 莫起下悲行
If one obtain great riches and honours,
One should not build oneself up.
Meeting lean times, like a hungry ghost,
Do not become down and act in a pitiful manner.

假設失王位 或死由實言
亦恒說此語 無實利默然
Even if it causes loss of royal status,
Or else death, speak the truth.
At the same time, if saying these words
Is of no real benefit, then let there be silence.

如言如此行 願汝堅行善
因此好名遍 自在成勝量
May you firmly practise the good,
As action thus described.
By virtue of this practice, your good name will spread widely,
And you will realize freedom in surpassing measure.

應作熟簡擇 後則依理行
莫由信他作 須自了實義
Do a thorough analysis
So that subsequent action will be based on reason.
Do not do anything based on faith in others.
The real meaning one must understand for oneself.

若依理行善 好名遍十方
王侯續不斷 王富樂轉大
If you practise the good, relying on reason,
Your good name will pervade the ten directions.
The succession of royal lords will be unbroken.
Your prosperity and happiness, O King, will proceed immensely well.

死緣百一種 壽命因不多
此因或死緣 故恒應修善
The conditions for death are of a hundred and one varieties,
The causes of longevity are not many –
And these causes are sometimes the conditions for death.
Therefore you should constantly cultivate the good.

若人恒行善 是所得安樂
於自他若等 此善樂圓足
If a person constantly practises good,
This practice itself is attainment of ease and joy.
If it is balanced with respect to self and others,
This joy in the good is roundly satisfying.

依法為性人 臥覺常安樂
夢中見善事 由內無過惡
When reliance on dharma becomes the essence of a person,
Sleeping and waking hours are constant ease and joy.
In dreams one sees good things.
From inside no fault or wrongdoing emerges.

若人養父母 恭奉自家尊
恭善人用財 忍辱有大度
If a person supports father and mother,
Honouring his own house,
Being respectful, a good person who puts possessions to good use,
Patient, modest, magnanimous,

軟語不兩舌 實言同止樂
此九天帝因 盡壽應修行
Speaking softly, not with two tongues,
Speaking jewelled words and equally delighting in silence,
Then these are nine causes of becoming a divine emperor,
To be cultivated over the whole of a lifetime.

由昔行九法 天主感帝位
時時處法堂 至今恒說此
From former practice of the nine dharma-practices,
O Divine Leader, you have experienced the position of emperor.
Often, at whatever place is a Dharma Hall,
Arriving at the present moment, constantly preach the following:

一日三時施 美食三百器
福不及剎那 行慈百分一
The merit of offering three times every day
Beautiful food in three hundred bowls,
Does not match the merit in the instant
Of one hundredth of an act of compassion.

天人等愛護 日夜受喜樂
免怨火毒杖 是行慈現果
Gods, humans and other beings love and cherish [that person of compassionate action].
Day and night [that bodhisattva] experiences happiness.
He is exempt from enmity, fire, poison and blows of the staff.
Thus does this act of compassion manifest its result.

無功用獲財 後生於色界
得慈十功德 若人未解脫
Through effortlessly spending money and receiving it,
He will obtain in future lives in material worlds,
Wherever people are not yet liberated,
The ten merits of compassion.

教一切眾生 堅發菩提心
菩薩德如山 菩提心牢固
Teaching all living beings
Firmly to establish the bodhi-mind,
The bodhisattva's merit is like a mountain.
The bodhi-mind is adamant.

由信離八難 因戒生善道
數修真如空 得善無放逸
By dint of confidence [the bodhisattva] transcends the eight difficulties.
Because of the precepts he gives rise to good ways.
Repeatedly cultivating the truth which is like space,
He attains the good, without being lax.

無諂得念根 恒思得慧根
恭敬得義理 護法感宿命
Without flattery, he obtains the root which is mindfulness.
He constantly directs his thinking towards attaining the root of wisdom.
With sincerity, he acquires the meaning of the teaching.
Guarding dharma, he experiences past lives.

布施聽聞法 或不障他聞
疾得如所愛 與佛相值遇
Giving freely, listening to dharma,
Or else not impeding other's hearing,
He swiftly gets whatever he likes,
And meets together with buddhas.

無貪作事成 不慳財物長
離慢招上品 法忍得總持
He is free from greed and yet achieves work to be done.
His possessions increase though he is not sparing with money.
He is free of snobbery and yet invites higher things.
Dharma-forebearance causes him to acquire, accrue, and retain.

由行五實施 及惠無怖畏
非諸罵能辱 故感大勝力
Through the practice of giving the five valuable things,
And the blessing of being free from fear,
[The bodhisattva] is incapable of being belittled by insults;
Therefore he experiences the excellent power of the mighty.

支提列燈行 幽闇秉火燭
布施續明油 故得淨天眼
Through the practice of offering lines of lamps,
Taking burning candles into darkness,
And regularly giving lighting oil,
He thereby attains the pure divine eye.

供養支提時 即設鼓聲樂
蠡角等妙音 故獲淨天耳
At the time of serving offerings
He lets there be the music of percussion and wind instruments –
The wonderful sounds of conches, horns and suchlike –
And he thereby obtains the pure divine ear.

於他失默然 不談人德闕
隨順護彼意 故得他心智
Remaining silent about others' mistakes,
Not discussing people's moral failings,
He guards, as occasion demands, the other's mind;
And he thereby attains the wisdom to know others' minds. 

由施徙舟乘 運致羸乏人
恭謹瞻尊長 故獲如意通
Through providing land and water transport,
Carrying people who are weak,
Showing respect to honourable veterans,
He thereby attains the power of acting at will.

令他憶法事 及正法句義
或淨心施法 故感宿命智
Causing others to remember matters of dharma
And the meaning of sentences of true dharma,
Or else, with a pure mind, imparting dharma,
He thereby experiences the wisdom to know past lives.

由知真實義 謂諸法無性
故得第六通 最勝是流盡
Through knowing the true and real meaning of the teaching,
Namely, that all dharmas are without an essential self,
He thereby attains the sixth and most excellent power of all,
Which is to put an end to the polluting influences.

平等悲相應 由修如實智
故自得成佛 恒解脫眾生
His impartiality and compassion are in mutual accord,
Through cultivation of the wisdom that accords with reality.
He is therefore able naturally to become buddha,
And endlessly to liberate living beings.

由種種淨願 故佛土清淨
眾寶獻支提 故放無邊光
Through many kinds of pure vow,
The [bodhisattva] cleanses the Buddha-land.
And because of serving up many jewels as offerings,
He radiates limitless light.

Note: On The Zen Site, these are numbered as 25 merits.

如此業及果 已知義相應
故應修利他 即菩薩自利
Such are karma and fruit,
When knowing and meaning are already in mutual accord.
Therefore, one should cultivate the benefit of others,
Which is just to one's own benefit as a bodhisattva.

True Advice to a King of Jewel-Conduct – Chapter 3, Raw Materials for Enlightenment

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